KNES 330 Midterm: Midterm Review

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Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KNES 330
Professor
Janice Cook

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KNES 330: Midterm
Lecture 1: Relaxation Overview
Definition of relaxation:
o Motor skill
Absence of tension
Muscles are not required to fire
Conservation of energy
o Mental state
Quieting of the mind, calm, inner stillness
o Illicit the relaxation response
Relaxation Response (Benson)
o A state of relaxed, passive attention to a repetitive stimulus that turns off the inner dialogue and
therefore decreasing arousal of the sympathetic nervous system
o It results in:
Decreased heart rate
Decreased oxygen consumption
Decreased respiration rate
Decreased blood pressure and volume
Decreased blood flow to skeletal muscles
Deceased sweat output
Decreased blood cholesterol and lactate
Decreased muscle tension
Increased saliva output
Increased galvanic skin response
Increased alpha and theta brain waves
o It also decreases brain activity
o Results in an increase in attention and decision making functions of the brain
o Changes gene activity that are opposite of associated with stress
Types of brain waves:
o Alpha relaxed meditative state
o Beta alert waking stages
o Theta daydreaming, hypnogogic state that can be related to relaxation and medication
o Delta deep sleep
Relaxation is not the same as sleep
o In the relaxation response state, oxygen consumption decreases faster and more dramatically than
during sleep
Rational for relaxation and recovery?
o Counters stress response
o Improves health, wellness, quality of life, and athletic performance
o Essential for athletic recovery and recovering from illness or disease
o Prevention of illness and disease
Definitions of health:
o WHO: health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence
of disease or infirmity
o Preferred definition: health is a quality of life involving social, emotional, spiritual, mental
(intellectual), and physical fitness on the part of the individual which results from
adaptations to the environment.
Definition of wellbeing:
o The dynamic ever-changing process of trying to achieve your individual potential or highest
level of physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and environmental health.
o Occurs with commitment to lifestyle choices based on healthy attitudes and actions
Applications and benefits of relaxation:
o Alter physical symptoms such as hypertension, irritable bowel syndrome, nausea, insomnia,
headaches, etc.
o Decrease pain and the use of pain medication
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o To change negative thought patterns
o To decrease anxiety and fear
o To alleviate depression and anger
o To help prepare for and experience medical procedures, treatements and tests
o Promote healing
o Enhance inner strength, resiliency, optimism, and self-esteem
o Increase feelings of well-being and comfort
o To increase self-awareness
o At end of life
Techniques used to elicit relaxation response:
o Diaphragmatic or belly breathing
o Body scan
o Progressive muscle relaxation
o Medication
o Mindfulness
o Yoga and stretching
o Autogeneic training
o Self-hypnosis
o Repetitive movement
o Dedicated silence
o Contemplation
o Prayer
o Sound
o Biofeedback
o Guided meditation / visualization
Relaxation training / relaxation therapy
o Physical and mental / cognitive techniques
o Therapeutic modalities (IMS, therapeutic ultrasound)
o Technology/equipment
o Medications and supplements
o Other
Physical / Somatic relaxation techniques
o Passive: progressive muscle relaxation, massage, breathing
PMR this could be problematic for people with high blood pressure, abdominal or eye
surgery. Take caution
Massage: could be problematic with blood clots, scar tissue, open wounds or lumps,
diabetes, cancer, and other medical conditions
o Active: Tai Chi, yoga, stretching, Chi Ball, Pilates, walking medication, mindful movement
Should take caution for populations with heart problems, high blood pressure,
osteoporosis, etc.
Caution and modifications with injury or chronic joint problems
Progression is key
Cognitive / non-physical relaxation techniques:
o Autogenic training
o Hypnosis
o Breathing
o Medication
o Visualization
o Contradictions of Cognitive relaxation
Loss of reality
Drug reactions
Panic states
Freeing of repressed thoughts and emotions
Excessive trophotropic states
Difficulties and challenges with relaxation:
o No time
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find more resources at oneclass.com
o Intrusive thoughts or wandering mind
o Emotions or memories come to surface
o Restlessness
o Falling asleep
o Noises
o Anxiety about letting go and not doing it right
o Twitching
o Appearances of images
Lecture 2: Stress Overview
Walter Canon was a researcher who discovered the fight or flight response
Fight or Flight Response
o Emergency preparedness
o Mobilization of the sympathetic nervous system and secretion of adrenal hormones
Homeostasis
o Stable internal environment that is maintained even with environmental change
o Uses the autonomic nervous system and endocrine mechanisms to maintain homeostasis
Hans Selye was a researcher who discovered distress and eustress (bad and good stress) and the general
adaptation syndrome
o Types of stresses;
Distress negative stress
Eustress positive stress
Which leads to increased awareness, mental alertness, cognitive and behavioural
performance
o Yerkes-Dodson Law:
Performance and arousal have an inverted U relationship
Performance is best when arousal is optimum, not maximum
o General Adaptation Syndrome (Hans Selye)
Alarm: immediate physiological adaptations that help deal with the stressor
Resistance: body tries to adapt to demands of persistent stressor
Exhaustion: body’s resources depleted if stresses becomes chronic with no resolution
Herbert Benson:
o Coined the term relaxation response
Allostasis
o Bruce McEwan coined the term allostasis
o the process in which organisms varies the internal environment to match external
environmental demands to maintain homeostasis
o there are long term physiological costs stemming from adaptation
o physiological ‘wear and tear
o cost of adaptation
o occurs from ongoing inactivity or over activity that results in illness or disease
o allostasis: the ability to achieve stability through change also called resiliency
o allostatic load: burden of stress adaptation, wear and tear caused by chronic over activity of
allostatic system
o heavy allostatic load: at risk for stress related problems
What is stress:
o What we experience when we face challenges in our lives
o Stressors can be internal or external
Distress or eustress
o Stress:
Psychological response
External stimulus
Internal, subjective response
o Appraisal, Interaction (Resilience), and Consequences
Begins process with appraisal of the threat and ensuing biopsychosocial responses
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Description
KNES 330: Midterm Lecture 1: Relaxation Overview Definition of relaxation: o Motor skill Absence of tension Muscles are not required to fire Conservation of energy o Mental state Quieting of the mind, calm, inner stillness o Illicit the relaxation response Relaxation Response (Benson) o A state of relaxed, passive attention to a repetitive stimulus that turns off the inner dialogue and therefore decreasing arousal of the sympathetic nervous system o It results in: Decreased heart rate Decreased oxygen consumption Decreased respiration rate Decreased blood pressure and volume Decreased blood flow to skeletal muscles Deceased sweat output Decreased blood cholesterol and lactate Decreased muscle tension Increased saliva output Increased galvanic skin response Increased alpha and theta brain waves o It also decreases brain activity o Results in an increase in attention and decision making functions of the brain o Changes gene activity that are opposite of associated with stress Types of brain waves: o Alpha relaxed meditative state o Beta alert waking stages o Theta daydreaming, hypnogogic state that can be related to relaxation and medication o Delta deep sleep Relaxation is not the same as sleep o In the relaxation response state, oxygen consumption decreases faster and more dramatically than during sleep Rational for relaxation and recovery? o Counters stress response o Improves health, wellness, quality of life, and athletic performance o Essential for athletic recovery and recovering from illness or disease o Prevention of illness and disease Definitions of health: o WHO: health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity o Preferred definition: health is a quality of life involving social, emotional, spiritual, mental (intellectual), and physical fitness on the part of the individual which results from adaptations to the environment. Definition of wellbeing: o The dynamic everchanging process of trying to achieve your individual potential or highest level of physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and environmental health. o Occurs with commitment to lifestyle choices based on healthy attitudes and actions Applications and benefits of relaxation: o Alter physical symptoms such as hypertension, irritable bowel syndrome, nausea, insomnia, headaches, etc. o Decrease pain and the use of pain medication o To change negative thought patterns o To decrease anxiety and fear o To alleviate depression and anger o To help prepare for and experience medical procedures, treatements and tests o Promote healing o Enhance inner strength, resiliency, optimism, and selfesteem o Increase feelings of wellbeing and comfort o To increase selfawareness o At end of life Techniques used to elicit relaxation response: o Diaphragmatic or belly breathing o Body scan o Progressive muscle relaxation o Medication o Mindfulness o Yoga and stretching o Autogeneic training o Selfhypnosis o Repetitive movement o Dedicated silence o Contemplation o Prayer o Sound o Biofeedback o Guided meditation visualization Relaxation training relaxation therapy o Physical and mental cognitive techniques o Therapeutic modalities (IMS, therapeutic ultrasound) o Technologyequipment o Medications and supplements o Other Physical Somatic relaxation techniques o Passive: progressive muscle relaxation, massage, breathing PMR this could be problematic for people with high blood pressure, abdominal or eye surgery. Take caution Massage: could be problematic with blood clots, scar tissue, open wounds or lumps, diabetes, cancer, and other medical conditions o Active: Tai Chi, yoga, stretching, Chi Ball, Pilates, walking medication, mindful movement Should take caution for populations with heart problems, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, etc. Caution and modifications with injury or chronic joint problems Progression is key Cognitive nonphysical relaxation techniques: o Autogenic training o Hypnosis o Breathing o Medication o Visualization o Contradictions of Cognitive relaxation Loss of reality Drug reactions Panic states Freeing of repressed thoughts and emotions Excessive trophotropic states Difficulties and challenges with relaxation: o No time
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