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PHIL 329 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Utilitarianism, New Zealand Labour Party, Liberty


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 329
Professor
Yoshiki Kobasigawa
Study Guide
Final

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PHIL 329

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Lecture 1. September 7, 2018
Philosophy, Business Ethics
1ST test, ETHICS
Ethics in general provide theories such as: moral wrongness, morally permissible and moral
rightness
You can evaluate actions or laws using these sorts of theories mentioned above.
Ethics tries to capture what makes wrong actions wrong, permissible actions permissible, etc.
Take these theories and apply them to business ethics to try to govern the business world.
We will look at the following cases:
1) Actions of business owners to see whether they are permissible or not.
Example: they have relations to customers, so one case after looking at ethical theories,
we have a case like
- CIVIL RIGHTS: which involves: racial discrimination, sexual orientation. IS it
permissible for owners to engage in racial discrimination in hiring or who they
serve? If it is, then why is it. Some may refuse to serve same sex couples, example
wedding cakes. Is it permissible to force business owners not to discriminate against
them?
- FOLD PINTO CASE: leakage of gas tank, and sparks came off and had explosions and
individuals who got killed. According to mother jones. Fold knew the impact in these
cars but still said they were okay. What he did, was it permissible? No? why/why
not?
2) Employees occupational safety- is it permissible for government to force them to ensure
their employees are safe
3) Environment- are they entitled to act to the demands of consumers or are they entitled
to take care of environment/? Are environment laws permissible? Some countries have
these laws. This case the law makers are restricting liberty of business owners to
prevent environmental damage. Are these laws justified
Do businesses have a duty you refrain from destroying environment?
Liberty Rights and property rights will play a large roll when we see business cases. A way of
explaining wrong, right, permissible actions.
- Liberty rights An entitlement to the community to do what they like to pursue
happiness so long as you’re not interfering with pursuit of happiness of others.
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- Property rights - The ability to apply ownership of stuff, like clothes, sport
equipment, businesses. So long as you’re not violating the liberty of others, you can
do what you like. These rights justify all acts of business, they will justify some acts
of business owners.
ETHIS, Moral intuitions. The appearance of wrongness, permissibility, rightness. Begins with
moral intuitions. They are like empirical observations in sciences. Starts with appearances,
received from perception. So, they hypotheses drawn from these. MI plays a similar role. how
things appear to us with regard to whether they are wrong, permissible or right. These
appearaes a e isleadig. Like ojets do’t atually get saller when they are thrown
further away.
Example: torturing cats for fun. It seems wrong to do this to a lot of people.
Example: Using other people body for pleasure without consent. Appears/seems
wrong.
MI says these actions are morally wrong.
We can test the above theories of whether they are right wrong.
If ethical theories say this is what makes an action wrong, then you have to use this to reject
the theory.
Developing ethical theories is why you have no moral intuitions.
Appears to us: Spending one’s free time painting is permissible.
You’re entitled to live life your way. But if ethical theory tells you its not permissible and you
think it is, that is something to question then.
THEORY: ETHICAL EGOISM BY RACHELS
Page 79- Where oe’s duty is to promote oe’s own interests. We have a duty to ourselves tp
make our lives the best that they can be. The duty that each person has to themselves.
To think about what interest is: pleasure and pain.
promoting interest
Example:
A is prootig A’s iterest y doig thigs that ireases A’s pleasure ad redues A’s pai.
It’s not only considering their immediate future, but their long-term future. Concerns their future
is filled with pleasure and reduction of pain. This is promoting interest
What ethial egois eed to aout for sees like a oious fat that e do’t alays ko
what is morally right wrong or permissible
1) EE adits idiiduals do’t alays ko hat is orally right-impermissible
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