Political Science pg.1956 01/25/2014 Chapter 3 01/25/2014
World Politics and Economics: 16481945
To analyze the causes and consequences of international relations, we all
must know the history of interstate relation in modern time
The time and place where the system of nationstate originated is a good point from which to begin our
study of world politics
• The sovereign nation state originated in Europe and spread to other parts of the globe, making
European nationstate system the blueprint for the rest.
Thirty Year War and the Peace of Westphalia
Feudal order was stifling commerce and economic development
16181648 Non secular leaders revolted against monarchs, therefore popes and emperors sought tp
crush and repress them. This lead to the Thirty Year’s War
• wiped out 1/3 of the European population(8 mil.)
• war ended finally after many deaths with Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
• This treaty established important principle of sovereignty(exclusive political authority over a
defined territory and the people within it). This meant secular authority rather than having
Eighteenth Century Europe
♦ The emergence of nation states actually created conflict
♦ Opposing forces of globalization and fragmentation +tension, while colonialism and trade were
strong forces for globalization everywhere.
♦ holy empire was disintegrating and the weakening of the ottoman empire began Chapter 3 01/25/2014
Great Powers were the main actors(around four at the time). They power projected on other
countries and asserted their dominance beyond their borders and also had influence
To be one, you need these in order to sustain its influence in the international system:
1) relatively large territory and population
2) a well organized military
3) strong economy
Ex: Russia was isolated therefore it grew with time even though not so powerful economically initially.
Holland failed because it got intimidated by the larger neighboring France and the dependence for trade
On the other hand, small Japan had a large sphere of influence because it had a very strong military
Realist approach to IR: one great power could not survive without the other, therefore a balance of
interest is pursued in order to proect each states’ interest….Three major wars
Following the Seven Year’s War. Britain tries to pay its war debt by increasing tax levies in the North
American colonies. This made the people resentful in the 17601770s which was then followed by the
American War of Independence of 1776, which France helped in, with supplies and weapons. This
Treaty of Versailles in 1783, recognized US as independent on Britain.
France was the most powerful state in Europe. Due to the costs of maintaoining military and
international political power= French Revolution of 1789. A radical departiree from the rule of
the revolution are inspire by two ideologies:
1. Liberalsm: people are the power and the government
2. Nationalism: everything is for the nation not the monarch Chapter 3 01/25/2014
During France’s military setback and increased domestic disorder, he seized dictorial power through a
1802: complete control of France
18031815: apoleonic War, he only accepted the complete submission and occupation of the defeated
weakened the british by banning the importation of goods to the Continent inn 1806. By 1810, max
control of Europe.
Downfall: went to invade Russia in the east eventhough they were resource drained from being inable
to defeat spain and Portugal.
The Concert of Europe (also Vienna system of international relations ), also known as the
Congress System after the Congress of Vienna, was the balance of power that existed in Europe
from the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) to the outbreak of World War I (1914).
Time of peace, cooperation. Nations didn’t want to reface event like the Napoleonic War.
The World Wars
World War 1 (19141918) and World War II (19391945) were the means by which the Eurocentric world
order selfdestructed and was replaced by a globalized economic and political system.
Cause of WW1
1. The rise of Germany
Germany became powerful, being in the center they were well situated to trade, invest and make
political contact with all of Europe. Due to their growing naval construction program, tension
increased amongst the Brits. This eventually led to an armsrace amongst Europe.
2. The system of alliances
♦ Russia and France signed a defensive treaty against the ever growing Germany, who took this
as the first step in a hostile encirclement.
♦ England and Japan agreed on being neutral in this war
♦ This created a problem for France, as waging a war would mean ruining their relationship with
Brits, which would effect their future plans of colonization in N. Africa (Brits had the strongest
naval) Chapter 3 01/25/2014
♦ “the Allies” Russia, Britain, France, Serbia, japan, Greece, Portugal
3. The changing balance of economic power
♦ Industrial revolution led to a major boom in population, with demand for supplies increasing
♦ All the countries industrialized, some faster than others, in order to stay ahead of each other.
♦ Majority of the world was colonized, leaving Germany stranded with barely any
♦ As the 20 century approached, colonialism intensified the antagonism between Britain and
6. Cult of the offensive
♦ The expansion of railroads enabled states to rapidly deploy troops to the front, while the
telegraph enabled better communication
♦ The ideas was that the one to land the first blow would most likely win(looking at previous
♦ This put the massive military machines of the great powers on a hair trigger.
Consequences of WW1
♦ Small conflict became a War of Attrition: a prolonged war or period of conflict during which
each side seeks to gradually wear out the other by a series of smallscale actions.
♦ Ended with the armistice signed in 1918
1. Russian Revolution:
overthrow of the current regime with a slogan off “land, bread ad peace”. Also relinquished claims
to the Baltic States Chapter 3 01/25/2014
2. Versailles Settlement:
♦ Allies took upon themselves the responsibility of bringing order and stability in Europe.
France wanted to take revenge on Germany for its losses, while the rest just wanted to claim
colonies from the fallen states.
♦ US proclaimed that they didn’t enter the war for some selfinterest but rather, to make the
world “safe for democracy”, or to create a new world order based on mutual respect and
cooperation between nations
♦ Demand for Germany: recreate the state of Poland, hand over the Saar region for economic
purposes to Britain and France, demilitarize the Rhineland(the portion bordering France).
♦ In all, Germany was held responsible for the was and was forced to pay for the reparation of
3. A weak league and the Road to Another WW
The hope of establishing peace and stability through the League of Nations League of Nations
was thwarted by US not wanting to join. They refused to ratify the treaty of Versailles. Without
the world’s largest industrial power, the league was nothing.
♦ The global security system Wilson envisioned never took off
♦ America returned to isolationism.
♦ Europe was more fragmented than it ever hade been before 1914
4. Economic Collapse and the Great Depression
♦ WW1 disrupted the international economy
♦ Because Britain and France were obtained arms from US, they were in 10 billion in war debt to
Japan benefited because everyone bought there stuff in time of shortage
♦ US investors invested in Germany, for a good interest rate, which the country used to pay the
Allies, which cycled back to the US to pay their debts. This benefited both the US government
and the investors.( Dawes Plan). This allowed the stabilization of the international
economy and also led to rapid growth
♦ American stock market crash of 1929, which led the US and the Europe into the Great
Depression. Banks failed, the supply of capital dried up investments and savings vanished, and
millions of workers lost their jobs. This stopped the Dawes Plan, halting the smooth transition
for Germany, France and Britain.
♦ This is when Germany had an economy that was devasted and a paralyzed political system.
This is when Hitler came into play. Chapter 3 01/25/2014
Cause of WW2
a. Expansionism of Germany, Italy and japan
b. The rise of fascism in Europe
c. Terms of Versailles were too harsh
d. Unfunctionability of the League of Nations, so they could prevent an aggression
e. Changing balance of power, Germany, japan and soviet became quite powerful
Consequences of WW2
This war was fought in the whole world, not just Europe
1. Uneasy Alliance
Yalta and Potsdam, Big Three
Nations in eastern Europe give selfdetermination and their own governments
Decided that Germany would be disarmed, Soviet, British and American will take a part of Germany.
Under pressure from Paris, France was added as a participant
Alliances didn’t trust each other was apparent at Potsdam
2. The Holocaust
Genocide of 6 mil Jews
3. Atomic Bomb
US dropped the B29 bomber, “little boy”, on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. In the absence of an immediate
surrender from japan, Russia declared war on august 8, dropped the “fat boy” on Nagasaki, august 9 .
Japs surrendered on September 2 nd
End of War
Conclusion: the wars destroyed the old world order and built the foundations of a new
system for resolving global issues. Chapter 4 01/25/2014 Chapter 4 01/25/2014
Process and effect of imperialism on the nonEuropean world. Europe set the pattern for the organization of
and interaction among nation state that persists to current day.
Any examination of how world politics came to attain its present form must begin in Europe.
World Politics and Economics: The Cold War (19451990)
Dominated by the struggle of Power between the US and the Soviet Union: The Cold War
The term describes a situation in which the two superpowers were locked in an apparently intractable
conflicts, punctuated by crisis and haunted by the danger of the Nuclear War, yet managed to avoid direct
Current USRussia relationship is tenuous due to the 40yr conflict
US hostility towards communist countries during the Cold War show reason for the current tensions with N.
Korea, Cuba and even China today.
Creation of the UN, International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank
Creation of Israel and the subsequent process to create a homeland for the Palestinian people are all major
developments of the CW.
What caused this
In the after math of WW2, the world became divided into the USled Western democracies and the
communist regimes, led by the Soviet Union. Each saw the other as an expansionist ans on
ideologically converting the owrld
democracy vs. totalitarian system.
Capitalism vs. Communism
Capitalism: system based on market, competition and individual choice. Western
democracy is anchored in the protection of individual rights and freedoms Chapter 4 01/25/2014
Domestic level argument:
Moscow’s Fault: without the containment policy, the Soviet would have teritorized in Europe, the Middle
East and Asia
They perceived communism as a monolithic, antidemocratic and totalitarian
Washington’s fault: US was to blame because it insisted of on expanding its overseas export markets in
eastern Europe postWW2 and failed to comprehend the security problems facing the Soviets. They were
making effort to aid allies and trading partners as an attempt to encircle and challenge the USSR
According to the socialist ideology, capitalism was the cause of war and conflict, and peace would come
with the overthrow of it.
Leadership or the lack thereof
Truman, who replaced Roosevelt after his death, had very little experience, and acted harshly against the
USSR. The Marshall plan was implied so strictly that it was insulting for the soviets to accept American aid
Stalin, was a brutal and paranoid dictator who had caused thousand of death of his own ppl even before
WW2, making everyone nervous about his regime.
These were the only current superpowers, which of course meant conflict
It was all a misunderstanding. Each assumed the worst from the other
Heating up the C