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POLI 381 Midterm 2 Review

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University of Calgary
Political Science
POLI 381
Michael Zekulin

POLI 381- Midterm 2 Review: October 23- November 13 • War has changed, security has changed • Wideners vs.narrowers • War= central feature of study of IR, existed for centuries • Since the conclusion of cold war it has been less prominent but localized to certain regions that remain more prone to war than others and war: interstate (between) has become intrastate (within) • Traditionally- a brutal form of politics; the way in which states sought to resolve certain issues/attain goals in IR. About amassing military power for defense and to “protect it” in support of foreign policy • Today: kinds of threats facing states change; less state-state rivalries, terrorism • International system change following war and power capabilities and relation among states change, winners gain, losers lose • Any reorganization of international system affects all • Power capabilities and relations as an explanation for war, status wuo states (maintain the system), revisionist states (change the system) • Nature of war- idea of why wars are fought, definition from textbook*. Nature doesn’t change, it remains constant and universal • Character of war changes- ways it is fought, technological advances, strategies • Hart: if you want peace, understand war • Carl von clausewitz: war is the continuation of politics by other means. An act of force intended to compel our opponents to fulfill our will • These ideas referred to large scale wars between states and their militaries • Wars were fought for reasons, calculated as an instrument to pursue an end or goal • Idea that war is a failure of peacerealists=peace is a failure of war • In emergence of nonstate actors as prominent groups in contemporary warfare • 1977 hedley bull: war is organized violence carried on by political units against eachother • Better attempts to explain incidents of terrorism, insurgency and parliamentaries • REALITY: war is a highly organized phenomenon and requires complex planning • Major evolutions in warfare a) Napoleon and the French revolution, nationalism, we the people, mobilizes the masses b) The industrial revolution, mass produce weapons, technological advances, provide weapons for everyone, railroads=mass movement of people quickly, reinforcements, transportation of the injured, soldiers were tired from walking/the commute= inefficient, trains made sure soldiers were well rested. Preserve food, canned goods • Post modern war • New wars (used to exclusively be between states). Emerged since mid 1980’s and driven primarily by globalization. • Contradictory forces of: integration-spreading of dominant western values and ideas; not welcomed by all. Disintegration: states failing and struggles for control of the state • Challenges: a) War was something that took place between states; we knew what to expect, today there are new challenges b) Increased instances of war occurring within states; calls for humanitarian intervention; pre-emptive use of war • International security- much like traditional understandings about the concept of war are changing/have changed, so has traditional conceptualization of security • Security and war are inherently linked • Security was traditionally seen as a reflection of the threat from another state • This also appears to have changed/is changing as there are now more threats from nonstate actors and specific issues as well • What is security? “a freedom from threatrs to core values” but this can be anything and it is different for everyone/every state. Basic definition. Traditionally about national security- the protection of the state • State definition: the condition in which sovereignty and territorial integrity of a state is guaranteed • Recent debate has emerged whether this remains accurate • Globalization and transnational issues • Emergence of 2 camps a) Narrowers: if everything is a threat then nothing is a threat, save the intensity of the word and its validity. Widening security threats minimizes original threat b) Wideners: want to broaden security threats- environment issues as a threat • Which levels of analysis? a) International: globalization and related issues b) National: traditional focus c) Individual: human security • Security and weapons- military power “defend as the factor of power relating to the size, organization and training of a state’s armed forces and the quality and quantity of its weapons • Weapons overcome securitydeterance • But there is a dichotomy between the two- example of the sword and the shield (can also be used against you) • Advances in weapons: capable of greater and quicker death and destruction- therefore need arose to control or limit these weapons • The security dilemma and the arms race • Unforeseen consequences- ex. India-Sino war 1962 • Security dilemma- trying to make yourself more secure may actually make you less secure • Reason= uncertainty, you cant take chances • Leads to downward spiral towards conflict • Accidents, costs, got em lets use em mentality, increased pressure of first strike opportunities, staggerings of military power- fight now while you are the more powerful state • Traditional approach to national security-mostly based on realist thinking, protection/survival and self-help strategies • Permanent peace=unlikely. Temporary peace=balance of power. Limited cooperation on occasion, but difficult a) Cheating- states try to gain advantage, no one to monitor, cautious and quick to withdraw, tentative agreements b) Relative gains- future, always concerned about gains made by others, incentive to cheat • Collective security- liberal idea emerged post WWII- tool used by international community to mitigate war. Attack on one was an attack on all. Contradiction-using war to achieve peace. Dependent on states living up to their commitments, Waltz vs. Mearschimer • Liberal Institutionalism- despite agreeing with NeoRealist assumptions, still claim institutions can help • Reasons: provide information, reduce transaction costs, make commitments more credible, establish focal points for coordination, facilitate reciprocity • Goal: Institutionalize cooperation • Constructivist take: widening, social not material, change the manner of social interaction between states, IR from realist perspective are self-fulfilling prophecies. Expecting the worst only leads you to subconsciously make it happen, changing our perspectives about national relations can enhance international security • Global security, human security? • Traditionally security- state and national level • International security determined by stability in international system • Does that hold today? Role of globalization, its effects on the state • Today: security threats from within states • Emergence of transnational issues which are non military and non state focused • More than ever cooperation is required to address these issues • Foreign policy- models of decision making* • “strategies used by states to guide their actions in international politics” “process by which decisions on international affairs are made” • Two components: objectives and means (hard vs. soft power) • Mostly routine behind the scenes, regular • Diplomacy “process of communication central to working of international politics through negotiations and dialogue- look toward less aggressive techniques • Individual and rational actor model- cost benefit analysis for decisions a) Clarify goals b) Order them in importance (prioritize) c) List available alternatives to achieve these goals d) Investigate consequences both possible and probable e) Choose course of action likely to achieve goals • Uncertainty, willingness to accept risk, competing goals limit effectiveness of this model, multiple individuals and organizations as well • Prospect theory: more in jeopardy you are, the greater willingness of risk you will take- circumstances matter in relationship to end goal • Not everyone in democracy has same goal/same process of achieving goal • Irrational actors a) individuals not all decision makers are equal, individual beliefs/values, personality, experience, intellect b) systemic issues- misperceptions, incomplete information, information bias, cognitive biases: justification of previous actions, wishful thinking, misunderstanding history- need to make you right. Pressure and time: satisfying-default to what you are comfortable with • prospect theory* • Organizational and Bureaucratic models o State foreign policy decision vs. individual policy decisions o Role of the state bureaucracy o Continuous problem? o Small actors making small decisions in line with states strategic objectives o Bureaucratic politics model bargaining between actors within governmental organization, seek own benefits, rely on own perceptions • Compartmentalization: creation of barriers with the whole, do your own thing, military vs. civilian desires (conflicting) • Group dynamics: MOB mentality- wouldn’t do something alone, but you would do it in a group, feed off each other o Groupthink o Polarization of ideas o Diffusion of responsibility o Skilled bureaucrats: controlling the agenda and voting processes o Crisis affects decision making o Time, stress o Intellectual shortcuts, miscommunications o Creates by=products that allows bad decisions to be made sub optimal decisions • Non-government factors: a) Public opinion- gives legitimacy to government goals and actions. Create favorable media, foreign policy vs. domestic policy b) Media: role of media, “rally around the flag”, distraction and misdirection • International Political Economy o Interplay of economics and politics in world affairs o Always existed but really increased post WWII o End of WWII- creation of Bretton Woods System to facilitate global economic reconstruction o US took active role in reconstructing Europe o 1947 Marshall Plan: response to fears of USSR expansion o Even then, many of the economic organizations were western, if not US dependent • Bretton Woods a) IMF- created to ensure stable exchange rate and the provision of emergency assistance to countries facing temporary crisis b) International bank of reconstruction- became the World Bank- created to facilitate private investment and reconstruction to Europe c) GATT General Agreement of Trade and Tariffs- became World Trade Organization (WTO)- a forum for regulations on trade liberalizations, deregulation- getting government out of the way, make things as smooth as possible so it is easier to trade • History: decision to establish a gold standard. US w
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