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SOCI 201 Midterm 2 Notes.docx

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SOCI 201
John Manzo

Aging (Chapter 15): - “Younger” elderly: 65-75 years old, autonomous, in good health, financially secure, likely to be living as a couple - “Older” elderly: 75+ years old, dependent upon others, health and/or financial problems - Women have a greater longevity than men - Global Map 15-1: Life Expectancy in Global Perspective o >75 years: Canada, USA, Mexico, Argentina, Eastern Europe & Australia o <45 years: Afghanistan & parts of Africa - Greatest cause of social isolation (in ~75% of widows/widowers) is the death of a significant other - Women widowed before 65 move in with their adult children to help raise grandchildren. Older widows tend to remain living alone as grandchildren may have already grown up, their help isn’t needed or they no longer have enough energy. Older widows are also used to living alone therefore may be more hesitant to give up their independence - Three-generation households: related to ethnicity, elderly Asians are 4 times as likely to live with their children than non-Asians - Percentage of Canadians 65+ years old is increasing due to: o Low birth rates o Increase in longevity - Age-based inequities vary by technological advancement of societies o Hunting and gathering: elderly are burdensome o Agrarian: exhibit gerontocracy due to accumulated wealth of the elderly, respected o Modern industrial: elderly are dependent and have little prestige - Problems with aging o Finding meaning when anticipating death  Perhaps less difficult for individuals whose earlier years were meaningful o Social isolation o Retirement and lifestyle changes o Income declines and poverty o Elder abuse and neglect Sex & Gender (Chapters 8 & 13): - Global Map 8-1: Contraceptive Use in Global Perspective o >70%: Canada, Brazil, China, Australia and parts of Eastern Europe o <10%: Afghanistan and majority of Africa - Laumann & colleagues: 1994 survey showed ~9% men and ~4% women reported homosexual activity at some time in their lives, only 2.8% men and 1.4% women claimed a homosexual identity - From Statistics Canada 2001, 34 200 same-sex common-law couples, represents 0.5% of all Canadian couples - Social-Conflict & Feminist Analysis: macro level analysis, linked to social inequality, men dominating women is due to society regulating women’s sexuality more than men’s, some sexual standards have changed but society still defines women in sexual terms and homosexual people are harmed by society’s heterosexual bias o Heterosexism is widely tolerated while sexism and racism are not o Queer theory: growing body of research findings that challenges the heterosexual bias in Western society - Patriarchy: a form of social organization in which males dominate females - Matriarchy: a form of social organization in which females dominate males - Sexism: the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other o Institutional: found in the economy with women concentrated in low- paying jobs, legal system has long excused violence against women - Type A personality: chronic impatience, driving ambition, competitiveness, free-floating hostility (matches the cultural definition of masculinity) - “Sex” entails biological characteristics while “gender” entails behaviours which may or may not be biologically-based - Women perform unbounded labour (tasks that cannot be put aside, ex. changing a diaper), while men perform bounded labour (tasks that can be scheduled, ex. fixing a leaking faucet) o “Second shift”: when women come home from work and perform additional domestic/unpaid labour - Sexual orientation of an individual is based on whether they meet the “appropriate” gender stereotypes and norms within a specific environment, not actually performing sexual activities - Heterosexuality is not perceived as public because it is expected  emphasizes “heterosexual privilege” in society Groups, Organizations & Bureaucracy (Chapter 7): - Primary group: a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships - Secondary group: a large impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity Primary Group Secondary Group Quality of relationships Personal orientation Goal orientation Duration of Usually long term Variable; often short term relationships Breadth of relationships Broad; usually involving Narrow; usually involving many activities few activities Perception of Ends in themselves Means to an end relationships Examples Families, circle of friends Co-workers, political organizations - Leadership roles: o Instrumental: group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks  Earn more respect  Build formal secondary ties o Expressive: group leadership that focuses on the group’s well-being  Receive more personal affection  Build personal primary ties o Possibilities within a group:  One individual plays both roles  One individual plays each of the two roles  One leadership role is missing  Both leadership roles are missing - Leadership Styles: o Authoritarian: takes personal charge of decision making, most effective in a crisis o Democratic: tries to include everyone in decision-making process o Laissez-faire: allows the group to function on its own, least effective - Conformity: group pressure shapes human behaviour - Asch’s Research: line length experiment where subject chose to conform into answering incorrectly when the answer was obvious, learned that many people will compromise their own judgment to avoid discomfort of being seen as different, even from strangers - Milgram’s Research: accomplice posed as “learner” in experiment where subject was given the role of “teacher” 1) being instructed by an authoritative figure 2) to work collectively with two accomplices posing as “teachers” to choose a level of shock o 2/3 of subjects reached maximum level of shock (450 volts) when instructed by authoritative figure o Voltages were 3-4 times higher than subject was in a group vs. subjects acting alone o Experimental conclusions:  Group-based: an individual conforms to group consensus  Authority: an individual bases their opinion on the authoritative perspective and gives up their own choices - Deference to Authority: subjects are falsely prompted by an authoritative figure resulting in subjects receiving false context of the question asked and answering incorrectly, ex. researcher asks subject how much a dot moved while the dot remained stationary - Biggest transition for group size is between 2  3 members o Formation of a “society” o Democracy, majority rule o Politics are not possible in groups of 2 because there is no distinct leader - Emergent Norms in Group Process: group must accommodate to a spontaneous situation at hand, ex. being trapped in an elevator causes division of the group (leader, etc.) and forming strategies for survival by arriving at a specific set of norms/behaviours - Groupthink: the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue (proposed by Janis) - Network: a web of weak social ties - Types of Formal Organizations (Etzioni): - Formal organizations: large secondary groups organized to achieve their goals efficiently o Utilitarian: pays people for their efforts, organized to achieve greater efficiencies, ex. Starbucks o Normative (voluntary associations): pursues a moral/normative goal, ex. Red Cross o Coercive: involuntary membership, form of punishment/treatment, supervision required, built to control human behaviour, ex. prison, hospitals ** A single organization can fall into more than one category. - Bureaucracy: an organization model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently, decrease in human interaction - Weber’s notion of “leadership by office”: o Specialization: different individuals are responsible for different tasks o Hierarchy: specialization is organized by hierarchy o Rules: cannot be breached o Technical Competence: how an individual achieves their position, not based on personal qualities o Impersonality: personality does not determine position or influence the service you receive as a client o Formal Written Communication: only valid when some sort of
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