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Midterm

SOCIOLOGY 325 Crime and Deviance MIDTERM 2.docx
SOCIOLOGY 325 Crime and Deviance MIDTERM 2.docx

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School
University of Calgary
Department
Sociology
Course
SOCI 325
Professor
John Manzo
Semester
Winter

Description
Sociology325Midterm2MaterialFebruary32014firstmidtermonFebruary122014studyguidepostedTMWortodaysections25RationalChoiceRoutineActivitiesandDeterrenceThemostvenerablecriminologicaltheorieswerealldeterministtheoriesththinthe1819centuryoutsideanindividualscontrolthataccountedfortheirbehaviouriebiologicaldeterminationBiologicalDeterminismLombrosoSheldonyoucandeterminethelikelihoodofsomeonescriminalactivitybylookingatbiologicalfeaturesasopposedtotalkingaboutreligionetcbutthattherearebiologicalfactorsintroducedtheideathatyoucouldmeausesomeonesheadbeabletodetermineiftheywillbelikelytobecriminalsmallheadsmallbrainmorelikelytobeinvoledincriminalactivityLombrosoSheldonlookedatbodyshapeveryskinnyorveryfatmenwhowereaveragemusclemorphsactuallymostpeoplearemorelikelytobecriminalPsychologicalDeterminismMaudsleyGoringcriminalityisassociatedwithfeeblemindednessnotbeingveryintelligentclassicalcriminologyscientificbiologicalandpsychologicalSocialDeterminismTardeComteQueteletDurkheimArguedthatyestherearefactorsthatareoutsideofanindividualsnaturebuttheyaresocialTardebehaviorincrowdswasdifferentthanindividualkevelbehaviorgottalookatthesocialenvironmentnotjusttheindividualallwereemphaticthattheindividualisnottoblameSomeoldandnewerperspectivesarenotdeterministbutseecrimeasanoutcomeofchoiceieofrationalcalculationththeresalotofthistheyweresayinglate18centurycriminalactivityandallhumanbehaviourrationalcalculationClassicalUtilitarianismLockeBenthamBeccariapeoplemakedecisionstoenhacetheusefulnessofthethingsintheirlivesalotofawardandnotalotofcostdontdothingsbecausetheircostlyanddothingsbecausetheyarerewardinganticipationofthepleasuresoutweighthepainsorientedtowardsbehavioralscienceallhumanbehavioursnotjustcrimewhydoyourobabankrewardsoutweighcostsRationalChoiceTheoryapplyingprinciplesofrationalchoicetocorporatecrimelearnedtobecomecriminalencouragedtobecriminalinformeddecisionsaboutcriminalbehaviourbasedonarationaldecisionRoutineActivitiesTheorythreeconditionsaremetforacrimetohappenphysicalfeaturesofneighbourhoodswhichcrimeisapparentvsnotBrokenwindowshypothesiscomesfrombatecarsdesignedthatifacarhasabrokenwindowitwasmoretargetedifyouweakenatargetitwillbeattackedmoreSuitabletargetseasilysaleablegoodsbreakintosomeoneshouseyouknowthattheirseasilyliquifyablegoogdcashthingsthatcanbesoldalsoonethatisinasettingthathaseasyentryandexitahousethatisrelativilyisolatedanditsfencedwhichmeansthattheydohavegoodsandafreewayrampsoeasytogetawayasweMotivatedoffendersyoungmenexAbsenceofcapableguardiansPeoplewhocandefendthemselvesRoutineactivitiestheoryisassociatedwithlifestyletheoriesofvictimologybecauseitaccountsforvictimizationbasedontheroutineactivitiesofcrimevictimsandsuggestspracticestoavoiditincludingtargethardeningandotherformsofsecurityaswellasareaprojectsetcVictimologylookatthingslikehowvictimsbehavioursincertainbehavioursthatcanleadtotheirmurderexbarfightsactinawayescalatingslutshamingthatifyoudressacertainwayyoudeservetoberapedideabehindvictimologyblamingvictimsfortheirvictimizationmucheasiertopreventthisthanperpretatrationsblamingsexualassaultvictimsroutineactivitiesthatcrimevictimsthatperpretatorsusetargethardeningthingslikeLocksalrarmsystemsareaprojectsyoucanimprovethesecurityinonehousewhataboutthehousenexthousesafetyinneighborhoodsDeterrenceDeterrencereliesonpotentialcriminalsrationalcapabilitiesarecriminalsrationalifwedothesethingsthatitisnotanappropriatetargeteverytimelockabikeupprobablywaystobreakthelockbutthecriminalwontgoaftermybikebecauseitstoomuchofahassletobreakthelockswerelyontheirrationalbehaviourclaimsofdeterrenceconceptthatcrimecanbepreventedwitherbyprovidinglessonsforthelargerpopulationortopeoplewhocommittedcrimebeforeTwoforms
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