DEFINING DEVIANCE AND CRIME
Society prepares the crime, the criminal commits it ▯ Henry Thomas Buckle
Deviance is a social construction (not real or set in stone ▯ something that is made by people and is
Historically, most criminologists have defined crime as “behaviour in violation of law” ▯ our modern
understanding of law is based on classical theory ▯ it suggests that laws should be established when social
THE CONCEPT OF CRIME
Samesex rights in Canada ▯ in Canada, marital rights were extended to gays and lesbians in 2005. In Iran,
those convicted of homosexual acts are lashed or even executed ▯ definitions of deviance and
crime vary across social space ▯ laws in Canada today are not the same as different countries
THE CONCEPT OF CRIME II
Canada’s criminal laws have changed dramatically since the 1960’s ▯ we can conclude that definitions
of crime and deviance change dramatically even in the same space over time ▯
homosexuality used to be considered a mental illness in the DSM ▯ homosexuality became a self
DSM books getting bigger possibly due to more social control
Gottredson and Hirschi (1990) define crime as the use of force and fraud
Downes and Rock (2003) intentionally avoid a precise definition. They do refer to banned or controlled
behaviour which is likely to attract punishment and disapproval
^very different definitions (variety in definitions)^
Many authors maintain that sociologists need to look beyond the state’s definition of crime and consider
deviance ▯ might restrict what we use in our analysis and if we are too narrow in what we study then we will
have flawed theories Becker (1963) suggests that deviance has nothing to do with the quality of behaviour, it is merely a label
successfully attached to another ▯ criminals/deviants thus could be victims of a society that likes to label
others as bad in some way
Pfohl (1996) and many others suggest that deviance is a violation of a social
norm. It is apparent that a social norm has been broken because there is a
reaction to behaviour in question. This is true for hidden behaviour that would
elicit a controlling reaction from others if they were aware of the behaviour
Possible midterm question ▯ Can secretive behaviour be considered deviant?
Think about what you consider to be deviant
What is deviant?
Who is deviant?
How do you know this?
Not about what people do but who is doing it ▯ alcohol (dangerous) is legal as to weed (not as dangerous)
(there do exists norms in society for good reason and that there is something real about deviance and
crime and because it’s real we can measure it in an objective way. We can come up with causal explanation
for what people do) ▯ GOTTFREDSON AND HIRSCHI
Absolutism (intrinsically real)
Determinism (casual explanation)
(think that rules are made by people and that they can change as a result of human enterprise. Tend to
believe crime and deviance are labelled. Conjured up by society and who is controlled by society. Criminal
justice system has huge impact) ▯ HOWARD BECKER
Relativism (a label) Subjectivism (a personal experience (in the eyes of the beholder))
Voluntarism (free will (free exercise in the human will: a robber/murderer may have free will while another
does not due to for example mental illness)
CRIME AND DEVIANCE
Conformity ▯ adherence to norms ▯ obedient
Nonconformity ▯ normative violation without reaction ▯ sociologists believe everyone engage in non
conformity at one point in life
Deviance ▯ normative violation with a controlling mechanism ▯ when society tries to change and
modify ones behaviour, that behaviour is considered deviant ▯ avoiding detection
Crime ▯ violation of codified law (not all crimes are deviant (speeding on Crowchild) and not all deviance is
criminal (transforming yourself into looking like a lion))
We can think of a continuum of nonconformity and deviance ▯ if the reaction to nonconformity is stronger
than chances are it’s closer to a deviant behaviour
DEVIANT? CRIMINAL? NONCONFORMIST? CONFORMIST?
Eating a big stake, potatoes, and zucchini for breakfast ▯ nonconformity
Providing sex in exchange for money ▯ criminal (laws in Canada are changing about prostitutions and it
should be pointing out that anything attached to prostitution is considered a crime)
A 21 year old male having sex with a 17 year old male ▯ criminal
Watching pornography? ▯ depends (age of the people (both in and watching))
A female with a natural moustache ▯ deviant ( when society tries to change and modify ones
behaviour, that behaviour is considered deviant)
Scarification ▯ nonconformist
WHY STUDY CRIME AND DEVIANCE
Vicarious experience (exciting)
Reform (induce positive change)
Selfprotection and sophistication (street sense)
Although criminologists generally agree that crime and deviance are real, there is much disagreement as to
how specific behaviour should be categorized Blackshaw and Crabbe (2004) go so far as to maintain that there is no such thing as deviance
Deviance is a difficult concept because not all deviance is considered immoral, it is not always harmful to
others, and it is not always costly to society
Definitions of deviance change over time
Definitions of deviance vary across cultural settings
Downes and Rock believe that such confusion and diversity should be embraced rather than be perceived
as a failing
This course will explore the different ways in which crime and deviance are defined and socially controlled.
It will illustrate what is appealing and problematic about these perspectives 09/24/2013
September 17. 2013
KNOWLEDGE OF DEVIANCE AND CRIME
The term crime is problematic for many reasons:
It restricts our analysis to certain types of behaviour (i.e. murder, theft) and much relevant behaviour may
be ignored (i.e. body modification). Can we plausibly generate informative theories about our subject if we
ignore many of them?
What about those who engage in nonnormative behaviour? Should we include them in our research?
CONCEPTUAL DIFFICULTIES II
The conception of crime is also problematic because our current definition of crime is based upon a specific
theory of crime. In this theory crime is define as “demonstrated harm to others”.
Harm, however, is very subjective term. For example, does marijuana use always cause harm to others?
What do we define as “harm”? ▯ no people die of marijuana overdose, however, on average approximately
96 people die of aspirin overdose
CONCEPTUAL DIFFICULTIES III
If the term crime is problematic because it is narrow, the term deviance has also caused problems, because
it is broad. Like the concept of crime, it varies across time and place, and it is subjective. Deviance also
depends upon people’s definitions of situations (ex. Use of alcohol and profanity)
If deviance is a violation of social norms, can it also be defined as situational? ▯ assault in a hockey arena
vs. in the parking lot of the arena
CONCEPTUAL DIFFICULTIES IV
Although these may seem to be purely abstract, academic questions, they have practical ramification. The
way we define our subject has significant consequences for constructing useful theoretical explanations
about the topic in question
Some have argued that discussing a behaviour in context of deviance defines that behaviour as deviant and
that the term should be eradicated altogether 09/24/2013
CONFUSION AND DIVERSITY
The sociology of deviance is not a coherent discipline. It is a common subject but there is not a common
Some Marxists perceive deviance as liberating acts of rebellion against capitalism; conformity as collusion.
Functionalists and control theorists perceive institutional restraint as vital to social harmony
This lack of unison should not be considered a failing but rather, a healthy scientific approach
CONFUSION AND DIVERISTY II
Little harmony can be attained about the contours of deviance. For some, prostitution and marijuana use
are victimless crimes, while for others these acts appear to be responsible for a host of other social
Definitions of deviance change over time (smoking tobacco, gambling, and homosexuality)
CONFUSION AND DIVERSITY III
What/who should not be studied in the discipline? (murky waters)
Is it ethical to study homosexuality in the context of deviance? ▯ some believe this course should be called
the “social construction of normality” ▯ how do we decide what is normal?
CONFUSION AND DIVERSITY IV
Deutschmann claims that one theory cannot explain all forms of deviance while Downes and Rock (2003,
Of course it is conceivable that the claims of one school are valid and that deviance is actually
unambiguous when it is properly interpreted. It is also conceivable that there is no single truth”.
CONFUSION AND DIVERSITY V
Clarke and Cornish/James Wilson simply dismiss theories of crime with no suggestions for controlling it ▯ if
there’s no way to solve the problem, then why care?
In contrast, Schur, Becker and Szaz would likely argue that state interference often leads to more deviance
(i.e. if branded a criminal, loser, failure etc., we might become as much) ▯ we may be incorrectly given a
title then live up to it because it is expected of us 09/24/2013
QUALITY THEORY AND RESEARCH (how people come up with knowledge of crime and deviance)
Causality (4 minimums)
Variables should covary
Covariance should be nonspurious
Research should be theoretically based
Reliable (consistent findings)
Valid (accurate and precise findings)
Representative (how far may we generalize?)
We are looking at theory and theory is generated by research
Covariance means that variables are associated with one another. In other words they go together in their
pursuit for a better understanding of the causes of crime and deviance; researchers have identified the
following variables as important:
Socioeconomic status (SES) (do the poor engage in crime more often because of
necessity? Is it because when you’re poor you’re more likely to be resentful?)
Visibleminority status (race: physiological reasons? Or the way they are treated)
One doesn’t cause the other, but they do go together
The minimum is fairly easily determined
You can’t say age is a crime of criminality if you don’t see that certain age groups are more perpetrated to
commit crime than others
CAUSALITYCONVARIANCE II CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS
Strength of two things going together is applied to correlation coefficients
CAUSALITYTMEPORAL SEQUENCE 09/24/2013
Temporal sequence suggests that cause must come before effect. That is the independent variable
(cause) must come before the dependent variable (effect).
CAUSALITYTEMPORAL SEQUENCE II
Let us assume that the following variables meet the requisite of covariance/correlation (they are the same
thing) since they are empirically associated with one another. Consider the variable below and explain
which one came first:
Selfesteem and promiscuity
Violence and age ▯ age: independent variable; violence: dependent variable
Depression and body image ▯ depression: either; body image: either
Brain chemistry and homelessness ▯ brain chemistry: either way ;homelessness: either way (used to be
that brain chemistry was the effect and homelessness was the cause)
Frequently academics will fail (when trying to provide evidence)
Spurious ▯ variable that you aren’t aware of is the cause for the relationship
Sometimes, variable correlate and it may be easy to determine which preceded the other in time. These
relationships may still be spurious. These relationships may still be spurious. That is, they may both be
caused by another variable. We might think:
X (depression) ▯ Y (body image) OR X (body image) ▯ Y (depression)
You want the relationship to be nonspurious (nonspurious good, spurious bad)
CAUSALITYNONSPURIOUS RELATIONSHIPS II
What if Z (abusive parenting) caused both X and Y
Z (abusive parents) ▯ X (depressions)
Z (abusive parents) ▯ Y (body image)
We might be in a position to suggest that depression and body image are correlated and maybe even that
depression preceded body image but parenting might be responsible for change in both variables
This is why scholars always perform literature reviews
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
3 questions from these 4 minimums (where 1 of these requisites is an issue, be
able to identify when this is the case)
In order to conduct quality research, findings should easily be replicated. Durkheim’s research on suicide
has been found to meet the tests of time and replication. Therefore, it is considered reliable 09/24/2013
Reliability (consistency in findings)
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY II
Validity refers to whether a researcher has in practice, captured what they have
examined. Put differently, does the empirical measure capture the real meaning of
the concept? Is it valid to suggest one can measure motivation by using a
person’s annual income? ▯ no (this is unvalid)
can you truly ascertain a person’s happiness on a scale of 15? lots will say no
impulsivity: general sense that some people out there are impulsive and others that have selfrestraint, can
you measure these factors? lots will say no
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY III
The following problems of measurement are often salient:
do you think our politicians are honest?
what is your ethnicity?
Flawed question: Agree or disagree: Western Canadians should begin to explore the idea of forming their
own country ▯ it says to explore not to actually separate
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IV
should the government reduce taxes on education and health care?
Do you think Premier Stelmach’s proposed oil royalty rate increases in Alberta are fair? ▯ people that were
unknowledgeable about this topic responded
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY V
Long questions and items (the 1980 Quebec referendum question)
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY VI
Negative items often generate bias and need to be avoided.
Agree or disagree? The Alberta government should not increase oil royalty rates
Many of the people will see the word “not” and answer on that basis 09/24/2013
REPRESENTATIVE RANDOM SELECTION
Most studies are considered with representativeness ▯ if we have a study, how far can we go to make those
Survey: population of place (5000000), sample (1000)
Idea of randomness is maintained in surveys (randomness means that every
single person in the population has an equal chance of being part of the sample) 09/24/2013
September 19. 2013
Given such diversity and confusion, how should we study crime and deviance, especially when deviants try
to hide their behaviour from themselves and others?
There are several methods including experiments, survey research (crosssectional and longitudinal,
victimization surveys, selfreport studies etc.), personal interviews, observation and participant observation,
case studies and content analysis
The experiment (controlled test in laboratory or in social setting) is a mode of scientific observation which
Taking action in this controlled setting
Observing the consequences of that action
Sociologists don’t make use of research methodology ▯ more the domain of
In the movie “Falling Down” (1993), Michael Douglas plays an impatient city dweller. Laid off from his job,
he drives home and becomes so enraged by heavy city traffic that he abandons his car on the road.
Walking home, he encounters thugs who try to steal his briefcase and gun him down. Seeking refuge from
them, he goes into a convenience store where even the owner of the establishment tries to cheat him. The
city is depicted as simply intolerable
Might cities truly be intolerable and cause this fictional character to behave as he did? Might the cause be
In 1962, Calhoun conducted a fascinating experiment on the relationship between population density and
deviant behaviour ▯ decided he would stick 80 rats into a small cage with 4 interconnected cells ▯ thought
he could observe the effect of population density on animals
He observed the behaviour of 80 rats placed into a cage containing four connected cells. What did he find?
Calhoun observed that two males guarded the outer cells and maintains harems. The two central cells,
largely containing males, were the locus of all kinds of deviant behaviour. There he found: 09/24/2013
1. Excessive aggression – cannibalism, infanticide, assault and sexual assault
2. Excessive passivity – asexuality, apathy, careless mothering, “zombielike” behaviour
Population density generates deviance (cities clearly create crime and deviance)
If experiments are so effective in isolating causal effects then what might be problematic about this study?
It is questionable whether rat behaviour can be so easily imputed to humans
Humans choose to live in cities (rats did not choose to live in these cages)
High density if a relative concept (i.e. Tokyo vs. Calgary (people from Tokyo may view Calgary as vacant,
while Calgarians see Calgary as heavily populated)
Sex ratio. It is well known that crime is largely a male behaviour
Hawthorn effect ▯ people change their behaviour when they know they’re being
CUCR (Canadian Uniform Crime Reports) ▯ actual crime rate is a “Dark Figures” because we don’t actually
know how much crime takes place because people try to hide it
About 2.5 million crimes reported to police per year (about 12% are violent crimes) ▯ in reality over 5 million
crimes because we omit traffic violations
Some criminologists will rely upon CUCR’s in their analyses. But, the “the crime funnel” creates significant
Largely used in psych
THE CRIME FUNNEL
Acknowledgement that it is difficult to measure crime and that when we measure it we are measuring a
certain type of crime
All crime (detected/undetected)
Detected crime (reported/unreported)
Reported crime (founded/unfounded)
Crime taken to count (convicted/acquitted)
*Uses the State’s definition of crime 09/24/2013
Our fairly nonviolent, noncriminal society is probably the result of something
other than the criminal justice system (parents, peers…)
A survey involves asking a sample of a population a set of questions. If a survey was delivered to a
sample of Canadians, it would be considered crosssectional (done in one point
of time to all population) – snapshot
Longitudinal survey (do the same thing over time (every 5 years)) – film
To do a survey assumes you know what questions to ask (bold claim) ▯ sometimes it is obvious but if you
are looking for the causes of crime (by posing questions) you are under the assumption that you know what
to ask, when in reality you don’t
If a researcher performed the same study over a period of time and included several surveys for
comparison purposes (i.e. 1981 census, 1986 census etc.), then it would be called a longitudinal study
According to Downes and Rock reported crime rates seriously underestimate the true level of crime
British Crime Survey (1981) found:
8% of known vandalism reported to police
29% of thefts from motor vehicles
48% burglaries reported
8% of thefts reported
11% of robberies reported
VICTIMIZATION SURVEYS II (GSS (general social survey), VAWS (violence against women survey))
People might not remember all crimes
Some people may be reluctant to admit victimization (child abuse)
“victimless” crimes cannot be reported
What about “embezzlement, employment pilferage, price fixing, and white collar crimes?
SELF REPORT DATA (NLSCY, NPHS)
Do a survey but ask the person to admit if they’ve been involved in crime or not
Hirschi ▯ how honest are people about giving evidence to researchers ▯ asked a bunch of teens how many
times have you been picked up by the police… ▯ went to the police and asked how many times they’ve
picked up this person, this person… ▯ younger people overstate their involvement in crime ▯ but for the
most people were honest 09/24/2013
Simply ask people whether they have engaged in crime and deviance
People are surprisingly honest about many kinds of deviance
Include scales and items (clusters questions or individual questions (items)) to detect deception (university
student evaluation recodes) ▯ using 2 questions on a survey but asked in different ways
Identify group of people you would like to speak to and ask questions
Interview people directly
Structured ▯ go through a series of questions in sequence
Semistructured ▯ go off of sequence occasionally, go off on a tangent
Some are completely unstructured
Interviewer effect ▯ you may change your behaviour or what you say given the status or aspect or
characteristics of the person posing questions (i.e. responding to female interviewer differently than male
OBSERVATION/PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION STUDIES
Designs and studies where you just people watch and you can come up with very interesting information
while watching people in their natural setting ▯ people that use this method say this method is better than
other methods because what people do and say are different ▯ observing reality, not just talk
Sometimes participant observation is done with deception
When behaviour is readily apparent (i.e. improper turns, mall behaviour)
Hirschi –“we don’t have much evidence in scientific term that Hells Angel even exists, but there are many
innuendos (drug trafficking and so on…) –“ very few studies that leads up to these conclusion
Humphrey’s Tearoom trade
Do we need to become involved?
Personal bias and ethical concerns –“ initiations (in order to become part of the group you have to try the
drug, personal safety)
Sometimes researcher will examine all relevant evidence in order to conduct a case study (obtain all
information about a certain event that you can get your hands on) –“ I.e. In order to understand “the
Bertuzzi Incident”, a researcher might want to examine player statistics, history of punishment etc.
Content analysis (i.e. some feminists have studied advertisements in beauty magazines to gain information
about eating disorders) involves the systematic analysis of documents including audio and video
recordings. In order to better understand anorexia, a researcher might want to consider the content of
beauty magazines 09/24/2013
There are several techniques that may be employed for a given question. The method often depends upon
the questions posed –“ people argue the use of triangulation (three different techniques available to you)
establishes greater confidence in your findings
There are no better methods –“ depends on your question
Qualitative (inductive) strategies are helpful in generating theories whilst the focus of quantitative
(deductive) methods are to verify existing knowledge
Unfortunately, there may be times when we must rely upon “bad sociology” (where we have to use the best
technique that we can even if it is imperfect and our sample bias and uncertain) Deviance and Social Control 09/24/2013
THE DEMONIC PERSPECTIVE
Foucault and Punishment:
the public spectacle of torture
the body was the site of arbitrary punishment – [typical punishment for this age, pulling apart legs etc]
[punishment is so severe because it was a try of the kings life]
done publicly, they want to scare the public into conformity
importance of the soul [ idea that the body is just the vessel , as a religious person, the soul is what is
important, if you said mercy you would be abiding your sins to god and the executioner would be doing the
work of god]
Demonology in the media:
The exorcist 1973
The Amityville horror, book, 1977
The exorcism of Emily rose 2005
[Are we fascinated with this kind of thing?]
Modern allegations of possession
Robbie Mannheim, Roland doe
David Verkiwitz (son of sam)
The exorcist was loosely based on his life. He was exorcized in the late 1940s at the age of 13 after his
family claimed that words such as Hell appeared in his skin, he levitated and spoke languages he did not
know. His real identity is unknown Deviance and Social Control 09/24/2013
Michel was exorcised in 1975. She had suffered a seizure in 1973 and subsequently heard voices telling her
she was damned. She also complained of seeing devil faces and became increasingly intolerant of sacred
artifacts and places. She died of malnutrition and dehydration in 1976
David Berkowith (Son of Sam)
He lived in NYC, murdered six people and wounded seven. He was apprehended in 1977 and ultimately
sentenced to six life sentences. He maintained that his actions were the result of demonic possession, lost
Possession and Temptation
Two roads to demonic deviance: possession and temptation.
Seven great (deadly) sins:
Sloth – apathy, laziness
Anger anger, hatred, revenge, violence
Lust excessive thoughts of a sexual nature
Pride love of self
Envy insatiable desire
Gluttony excessive indulgence
Greed avarice, hoarding, theft
School texts and Morality:
Views on abortion, euthanasia, and homosexuality
[BC teachers said there was too many suicides in LGBT teens, what we should do is have textbooks that
reflect the diversity in society
More diversity is a good thing ]
British Columbia school curriculum debate about including texts such as:
One Dad, Two Dads, Brown Dad, Blue Dads
[Surrey school board said that this violated our beliefs from a religious perspective, took it to court, lost] Deviance and Social Control 09/24/2013
An eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth, stroke for a stroke, burning for burning
Estimates range from as low as 40 000 to 500 000 witches executed during the Renaissance
Shaving heads, the Scarlet letter (big a, stands for adultery, typically in females) , branding a T upon a
The Salem Witch Trials:
In 1692, the Salem witch trials began in Massachusetts and over 150 people were arrested and imprisoned.
Twenty nine people were convicted on the capital felony of witchcraft. There were no witch burnings, most
people were hung, crushed or died in prison.
Titchyba, first witch perpetrated
Govorners wife was an alleged witch, governer was like wtf no, and put a atop to it, that’s when it ended
Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of the Witches) written by Heinrich Keamer and Jacob Sprenger in 1486
was used to punish convicted witches, It suggested that witches were usually female, they cast spells on
other women, and that torture was an acceptable means of proving guilt.
[user guide to identify witches]
The Salem Witch Trials 2:
Witches were burned in Europe, hung in Europe and North America, endured the water test [ tie up women,
if you float=witch], were identified by the existence of birth marks and spectral evidence
Spectral evidence can see ghostly images emanating from a witch
Malleus Maleficarum 2:
The malleus Maleficarum were also significant due to the mass hysteria it helped generate. This is because
it suggested that those who denied the existence of economic contraction, racism, and sexism combined
with the Malleus, lead to the hysteria that ensued.
Many underlying tenents commonly held throughout society today
Directly informs policy makers on moral issues
Reveals the seemingly arbitrary nature of defining deviance of implementing control policies
[George bush said that his religion obviously had an impact on how he ran the country] Deviance and Social Control 09/24/2013
Demonic Perspective 2:
Centralized control and authority
Reveals that the affective emotional characters of deviance, conformity and social control
[we don’t usually look at deviance form an objective perspective, it shows will power and makes people
Nazis created fear in people who are ‘genetically defective’ and exterminated them.
The red scare
That communism is around the corner for North America
Senator mccarthy labeled gay, lesbian and communism the same
Satanic day care centres
most in Sask
What is wrong, if anything with this line of logic?
Guy who raped woman for 9 hours, who not do those things today?
Because its not going to change the victimization that has already occurred
A state that practices cruel and arbitrary practices is just as bad as the criminal they are trying to punish
Would a deviation of such justice system work today? what would it look like?
THE CLASSICAL PERSPECTIVE
“The power of the lawyer is in the uncertainty of the law.” –Jeremy Bentham
Context: Deviance and Social Control 09/24/2013
The demonic perspective (possession and temptation as causes of deviance)
Arbitrary [ different punishments for same crime], brutal, and public punishment
Deviants partly responsible for their behavior
Chaotic (high crime rates)
Enlightened reformers such as Beccaria, Bentham viewed demonic punishment as systemic rage
The nature of all human action was the same (selfinterest)
The importance of happiness
Mini Max Theorem
Calculating rational actors
Units of pressure and pain calculated
Principle of a civilized nation
Free will and social contract
If we can get everyone to understand that if they do good things, they will get things in return, they will
Deterrence was central to punishment. Crimes, not criminals should be the focus of punishment
According to classical theorists, punishment must contain three basic elements in order to be effective:
Swiftness (celerity) [quickly after the act is done]
Certainty [does not have to be extreme punishment, just certain]
Most important out of the 3
Severity [needs to be one unit of pain greater than the act]
Punishment 2: Deviance and Social Control 09/24/2013
Bentham proposed that laws could be created when deviant behavior presented a demonstrable social
harm. If there was no victim, then there was no harm done. Thus it appeared as though the prevailing moral
basis for determining deviance had been seriously challenged by enlightenment reformers, mortality was
still evident in definitions and treatment of deviance. Determining the common good is a subjective process
that explicitly disregards the rights of minority groups.
Foucalt (1997) explains that the Enlightenment brought dramatic changes to the Modern understanding of
definitions of deviance and methods of punishment. Classical theorists sought to being uniformity to
punishment by ensuring that the legislative body generated laws and the judicial determined questions of
guilt. These reformers, likely considered deviant themselves at the time, maintained that all behavior was
hedonistic; attempts to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. As such, deviance was deemed no different
than any other behavior and effective control was based on swift, certain punishment slightly more severe
than the pleasure derived from it.
Legislative determination of law, judicial determination of guilt
Deterrence as the reason for social control
Control of acts rather than actors
French Penal Code 1791
Current justice systems (modifications)
Growth of prisons
Presido Modelo, Cuba:
Joliet Correctional Centre, Illinios:
Chi Hoa, Vietnam: Deviance and Social Control 09/24/2013
What is problematic about this perspective?
Are people rational?
Can we ascertain units of pleasure and pain?
Does prison work?
On what basis should punishment be based? Sept 26 09/24/2013
for exam: do all the readings! one question per reader (green book)
pay attention to concepts (laundry lists)
deterrence was central to punishment. needs three basic elements: swiftness, certainty, severity.
bentham: laws created when deviant behaviour presented a social harm. no victim, no harm done.
foucault explains the enlightenment brought changes to definition of deviance and method of punishment.
legislative body generated laws, judicial generated guilt. do not want one body doing both, that leads to
rational punishment. – slightly worse than the pleasure
behavior is hedonistic done to maximize pleasure and minimize pain
legislative determination of law, judicial determination of guilt.
judiciary is separate but paid for by the govt. independent
deterrence as the reason for social control
control of acts rather than actors.
french penal code 1791.
implemented by napoleon.
had a book that outlined every criminal act, corresponding to a punishment.
eg murder or assault had a specific punishment.
judges did not take confounding matters into respect
what's wrong with this?
equality and sameness are not equivalent.
children? people who cannot form intent (insanity)?
if we are to control people in this classical way, we can give them fines (easy to quanitfy pleasure & pain) or
create a prison system.
current cjs (modifications)
growth of prisons
problems? Sept 26 09/24/2013
panopticon. building type which has control in the middle that guards can see but not be seen, and all
prisoners can be seen from the tower
these exist in cuba, illinois, vietnam
always watched wherever you go.
shopping malls were based on the panopticon idea.
what is problematic about this perspective?
are people rational? are most people rational? most of the time?
crimes of passion
drugs and alcohol? drunkenness law
can we quantify units of pleasure and pain?
does prison work?
do prisons create more crime?
people keep going back to prison recidivism
on what basis should punishment be based? should it be deterrence?
should prison be about pain? rehab? deterrence? or just separating bad from good?
the pathological perspective
deviance is examined differently depending upon the manner in which it is examined.
Demonis and classical have one similarity: they are both epistemologys
epistemology is a way of knowing our social world.
how do you know what language mexicans speak if you have never been there? Sept 26 09/24/2013
the pathological approach the tendency toward deviance originates in the body. he argued criminals are
atavists return to a former state. criminals were evolutionary throwbacks.
no religious interpretations of deviance and no more "reasonable criminals"
some percentage of criminals are natural born criminals.
robbers have "small, shifty eyes and bushy eyebrows and twisted noses; beards and foreheads receding".
natural born criminals are not very attractive
he brought science and multicausal analysis into crime and deviance. we need to use science to
he alerted academics to biology to affect deviance. he argued a normal man requires no punishment for
homicide because he would never do it again. he ack everyone does crime, however
punishment should fit the criminal and not always the crime (as opposed to rational punishment), mitigating
similar to the demonic?
both perspectives contain a focus on the body
control over the act or the actor?
demonic / classical / pathological
evidence and explanation:
tale of sodom / rational choice / biological
witches mark / / evident in lower evolved creatures
possession & temptation / /
severe public spectacle / fit the crime / surgery
arbitrary / forced relations? / drugs
reborn? / / counseling Sept 26 09/24/2013
confession / /
exgay movement: if you are a "practicing homosexual", stop (basically)
empirical research flawed
you only caught the dumb criminals! the bad ones are out there!
measurements were sloppy
compare brain sizes in skulls
cheated at the data
statistical techniques not yet refined
many stigmata were simply social (eg tattoo)
stigmata: a physical abnormality or birthmark that indicates you are atavist 09/24/2013
was the father of biological crime and deviance.
dugdale and the jukes
1877 dugdale studied the juke family, who was impressed by the number of blood relatives in prison.
studied over 150 years of family info and found that crime/poverty were inherited. after all the facts, it
seemed accurate that genetics had an effect on deviance.
criticized by samuel adams who noted similar rates of deviance are found in a respectable family. this
suggests deviants are found in all kinds of families.
all families have criminals/deviance far back enough!
if we do find higher rates. how do we attribute this?
more opportunities to conform
goddard and the kallikaks
a respectable soldier in the american revolution had an affair with a feebleminded barmaid. she had a
child. he abandoned the barmaid and had a child with a good girl. the feeble minded side had deviant
children and the good girl had only good kids.
hardly a model of objective research. the dice were loaded against the poor! there was difficulty finding
unbiased records. intelligence testing was subjective.
doctored photos of the kallikaks made them look darker, gave children a blank stare
believed everyone has 3 components to their personality
1. Id instinctual energies.
2. Superego inculcation of society's norms
3. Ego in between, balancing act.
stable along life course. mind is in conflict between deep desires, the id and the superego.
the id wants stuff, the superego says no we need to be good. the ego balances these demands
eg miniwheats. frosting is id, wheat side is superego. together its the ego!
an overly strong id may lead to a life of crime. these people do not have the personality to resist temptations
that present themselves. these are the class clowns in high school. 09/24/2013
by contrast, what are we to make of the strict conformist? those with an overly developed superego may not
display a clear personality on their own. so concerned with what people think of them.
preconscious: that idea on the tip of your tongue
freud thought he could ascertain what you didn't know about yourself.
freud was an awesome writer. example, when waking up on the wrong side of the bed: because there was
no solution in your unconscious mind and you are angry.
...insulin induced comas...
pathological approach has little evidence to support it, some of its methods to fix people are problematic
science tells us we have to ante up the data! with freud, he has no data. therefore no research design to
prove he is wrong. similar to disproving the existence of god.
problems with pathology
the approach promises much but delivers little. it often practices politial repression.
accept simple nonconformity?
sociology came into be by doubting psychology, biology. 09/24/2013
turner and edgley
drugcraft has replaced witchcraft.
impossible to identify causes and effects:
brain chemistry mind behavior
mind behavior brain chemistry
might stress cause changes in brain chemistry.
impoverished families have higher stress levels, therefore can't think as clearly.
'if you talk to god, you are praying; if god talks to you, you have schizophrenia. if the dead talk to you, you
are a spiritualist; if god talks to you, you are schizophrenic.
it is not hearing voices that constitutes psychiatric disease, it is whose voices are being heard!
epigenetics: nature vs nurture (more media constructed than reality)
look at how social environment affects our bodies.
the social changes the biological. (good example: dogs from wolves)
are there chemical reasons to be a republican or democrat?
are there chemical reasons to be a catholic or protestant?
lower socioeconomic status related to schizo
marital status related to schizophrenia. more often in single than couples.
human genome not mapped yet no evidence for a gene being responsible for deviant behavior.
why not say the devil is responsible? where is the proof?
gender is a good example of this. clearly bio differences between male and female so this is why we have
masculinity and femininity
is one predisposed to masculinity or femininity?
colours chosen as a baby, toys chosen
study questions time
undetected behavior can still be deviant.
age of consent for sodomy differs, which is what makes homosexuality deviant.
the answers for behavior classification will be clear.
random selection is more important than sample size. o'grady makes this statement strongly; wrong 09/24/2013
know what participant observation is
panopticism: a few people can watch the many. think panopticon. synopticism: the many are
getting their moral codes from the few. celebrities, mostly
sample bias: reliability, validity, etc
SES is more important than age: SES has least effect than the other 3.
crime as force and fraud
most difficult causality to establish? nonspurious relations.
reliability and validity
temporal sequence: which is the correct causal order of the variables.
canadian cjs is based on classical theory. but hey, functionalism (norms)
demonic punishment criticism
homicide rates (o'grady) peaked in 1970s.
hint: o'grady refers to female perps as "mean girls". nope!
superego in both minds
deviance creates fear and fear creates deviance; this is tautological (circular logic)
functionalism is not on the test! not an answer either.
which would be advocated by pathologists? Heiner Notes for Midterm 1 09/24/2013
On the Sociology of Deviance
Erikson the deviant helps its community establish its moral boundaries and
therefore its identity as a community
Can we expect deviants to go into highly deviant places (prison) and come out
Communities are boundary maintaining:
take over a particular niche in “cultural space”
develops its own “ethos” or “way”
the only material found in a society for marking boundaries is the behavior of its members (networks of
group declared how much variability and diversity is tolerated before group loses shape
newspapers are the same entertainment as public hangings
boundaries are never a fixed property of any community
deviant forms of conduct often seem to derive nourishment from the agencies devised to inhibit them
dramatic ceremony to become deviant, then released with nothing
we should be wary that of the assumption that a well structured society is
designed to prevent deviant behavior
two currents in society: high degree of conformity and those who encourage
diversity, deviants patrol the boundaries
Conceptions of Deviant Behavior
Step before the formulation of a relational statement conception
Conceptions frequently confused with substantive theories, which reflect conceptions
Lombroso to Sheldon – criminals biologically distinct
Durkheim some events don’t hurt people, but a radical functionalist would say they do
Garfolo natural crime, acts that violate prevailing sentiments of pity and probity. Wrong because no
Sellin conduct norms, some laws may be arbitrary in other societies
Some acts are criminal or deviant because they are prescribed Heiner Notes for Midterm 1 09/24/2013
the shift from biological to analytical is from actor to the characteristics of their acts
The new conception: focuses on external
No intrinsic qualities, contradicts biological and analytical
Kitsuse forms of behavior per se (intrisictly) do not differentiate deviants from non deviants
Erikson when there is deviance, “something should be done”
Becker a consequence of the application by others of rules . Label, “offender”
If the reaction is of a certain kind – deviant
Biological variables may explain why people commit acts, but not why they are crimes.
The Devil Goes to Day Care
Satanic ritual abuse
Widespread, volatile, hostile and overreactive
Covenantal sphere (family)
Relationships built on mutual commitment, binding, emotional expressiveness
and contractual sphere (market economy)
Relationships built on mutual agreement, negotiation, exchange
These things are interdependent
Mc Martin preschool
Thomas Theorem Things that are perceived as real are real in their consequences.
Hysteria stopped when it reached more educated cities that did not believe in koro
Normal body fear reaction
Nones on the Run Heiner Notes for Midterm 1 09/24/2013
The deviant is often neglected in professional literature
These nones are organized
Deviance neutralization rendering a positive image while doing something odious and obnoxious
“unconversions” ie. Converting religions
in between religion and conversion
does not measure up to its claims
does not achieve empirical validity
contradicts other expectations or values
threatens the believer
anomie previously held beliefs start to lose meaning
the very fact they go out of their way to show that they are free shows that they are not
their group was not exist if there were not Christians everywhere
neither belief system could exist without the other
Bombers are martyrs not criminals
Necessity makes forbidden things permitted
Why Ritalin Rules
street drugs similar crystal meth , coke
Petitioned to make it easier to get it
Paraphilia’s Across Cultures Heiner Notes for Midterm 1 09/24/2013
Statistics or psychopathalogical norms are two ways of defining abnormality or deviance
Excessive social desire = nymphomaniac
Sex positive vs sex negative societies
Fetishism (sadomasochistic),transvestitism , transexualism
Schizophrenia in the Third World
Better prognoses than US
“unemployment” meaningless in non industrial societies
value of belonging Midterm 1 Review 09/24/2013
Study of Rule makers – social reaction perspective
Objective legalistic perspective all rules and laws are endorsed by everyone
According to Hagan, social deviance is a continuous variable
Canadas first drug law, 1908
Chapter 1 moral panic example war on drugs in the 1980s
Moral regulation implies social control exercised on low consensus crime and non criminal deviance
Possessing opiate in Canada 25 years
Reiner and Livingstone – property crime down, terrorism up
The goal of empirical research is to systematically collect observable data
Police reported crime is also known as official crime stats
Robbery is not a “property” crime
Limit of observational studies is that they cannot be used to make broader generalizations about the
Hong Kong has the lowest level of fire arm related homicide
Homicides in Canada = manslaughter, murder and infanticide
Magna Carta important because it has the foundations of modern English law
Rationalism assumes that people are self determining entities
1700s John Howard made it his goal to reform the prison system and make it more humane
Positivism is the application of the scientific method to study the human condition
Lombroso got idea of biocriminology from Italian prisoners
William Sheldon – ectomorphic body is not prone to crime
Biological parents will murder their children less than non biological parents evolutionary psychology O’Grady Review 09/24/2013
Chapter 1: O’Grady Review 09/24/2013
Objective Legalistic vs Social Reaction
“value consensus” or “normative” position
something that is against the law, factual and precise
analysis of rule breakers
look at official crime stats
Lombroso biologically inferior inmates
Cleckley serious criminals feel no shame or guilt
Gottfredson and Hirschi crime is based on a social consensus, those who break law lack self
3 types of law
administrative, civil and criminal
evil act actus reus
evil mind mens rea
children under 12 cannot have mens rea
Howard Becker Labelling theory social groups create deviance by making rules whose infractions
constitutes deviance and then applying them to label them as outsiders
notion of moral entrepreneur
social deviance is a continuous variable
includes social class, race and gender
Michael Foucault moral regulation, a social process that defines what is right and wrong in society,
encouraging some forms of behavior and discouraging others
People follow rules because they fear the consequences of getting caught O’Grady Review 09/24/2013
How groups are controlled as well as how they resist that control
Conflict theory elite inflict their beliefs and wishes on others
“opium menace” Opium Act
Stanley Cohen – moral panic
1980’s crack epidemic
war on drugs
a “folk devil” emerges
nasty girl phenomena
barron and Lacombe bad girls are presented as products of the feminist movement Functionalism 09/24/2013
People are moral to the extent that they are social. –Durkheim
Functions of Crime:
There are four ways in which deviance contributes to the normative order:
It sets boundaries
It enhances group solidarity
It maintains innovative functions
It reduces tensions
“Latent (not known in advancethese 4 are latent) vs. Manifest (punish to show
others its wrong)”
Problems of Functionalism:
No theory of crime/ deviance
This is “the imputation of cause to beneficial consequence”
“the explanation of phenomena by the purpose they serve rather than by postulated causes”
Circular reasoning. “because if it exists it must be functional. If it were not functional it would not exist”
Prostitution (Davis) would not exist if it were not functional
Crime, poverty, repressive governments, deviance, etc Functionalism 09/24/2013
Kai Erickson (1964) Wayward Puritans:
Erikson used court records to reconstruct the role of deviance among Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay
Colony. He found:
for each punishment moral boundaries were clarified
each time the community moves to censure deviance, it sharpens the authority of the violated norm. The
norm is more clearly identified as important to society.
The definitions of deviance were clarified by the values of society
Norms varied with what is punished
Men who fear witches soon find themselves surrounded by them; men who become jealous of private
property soon encounter wager thieves.
Most importantly, he notes that the volume of deviants remained relatively constant over a 30 year period
“does the fear of deviance create deviance, or does deviance create fear?
In out post 9/11 society, will we find more acts of terrorism suggesting a greater problem than what actually
Prostitution (Kingsley Davis):
In 1937, Davis asked “why is it that a practice so thoroughly disapproved, so widely outlawed in Western
Civilization, can yet flourish so universally?
Why is it considered “the world’s oldest profession?”
He argued that prostitution would never be eliminated because of the important social functions it served
Prostitution exists for physiological and sociological reasons
Davis noted that females do not have periods of anoestrus (complete unresponsiveness to sexual stimuli).
Different from other mammals because it is conditioned (sexual stimuli)
Social dominance. The degree of dominance determines how bodily appetites will be satisfied Functionalism 09/24/2013
Since prostitution is a contractual relation (money for sex), it is strange that modern
writers have made so much of it as a social evil with economic causes only
Three aspects of prostitution must be recognized:
The rate of prostitution
Individual causes for seeking a prostitute
There is something about the inherent character of society other than the mere economic argument that
explains this reality. It is not simply an economic motivated behavior.
Would raising wages for women abolish this behavior? This logic ignores the demand side of the equation.
Not only poor women engage in this behavior and it existed in the Soviet Union.
Why do not more women engage in this behavior if it is economically feasible?
The functions of prostitution include:
Male need for sexual adventure and experimentation. Men have a much higher for sex (including unusual
sex) that may not be met by their wives.
Less attractive men may not find sex so readily. Prostitutes make this possible
Prostitution then, functions to keep the family (with all of its societal benefits i.e. procreation, love etc) intact
Why else might it exist? Davis argues that society, from time to time, rounds up well known prostitutes and
“johns”, but does little to abolish the practice.
Could not the state send in police in droves to eliminate the behavior what would happen if they did?
Conclusion: Functionalism 09/24/2013
Functionalism is a problematic theory for the explanation of crime and deviance. Nevertheless, it persists in
many difference guises since its intellectual dominance in the 1930’s 1940’s and 1950’s (downes and rock
Do the problems identified earlier render the theory useless?
Flawed to the point of being useless
Know tautology etc for next exam
All deviance if functional?
functional for whom then.
Prostitutes suffer from a lot of violence and sometimes even killed
As eriksons work shows does deviance criminals cause fear or does fear create
deviance even when it does not exist?
society may make up deviant behavior
you would never have a society of saints
this idea was picked up by merton
came to the conclusion tat maybe society does kind of create deviance, and there
is a situation where individuals find themselves in a strict society and they are
labeled as deviants
2008 Chris Attern from Ryerson University, given an assignment to do at home on
his own, you are not to share with others
creates a fake facebook page, and solicits the help of others
chris says it isn’t cheating, it’s a new era of working together, because its online it
is not considered collaboration it is cheating
prof says its cheating
chris is facing charges of academic misconduct
says he wasn’t treated fairly, cannot protect himself Strain Theory 09/24/2013
Means with purpose or normlessness
Durkeim gives two different meanings to anomie:
An anomic division of labour (when a whole society is experiencing anomie, slavery,
when people are underemployed or unemployed)
An anomic mental state of an individual (a person being marginalized)
These things are interrelated, cannot just analyze one or the other
The Division of Labour 1:
Recall that Durkheim make much of the transition of society from mechanical Soliditary to organic
Soliditary. The former is a state in which people “in the simplest societies” and bonded due to their
similarities. The latter is characteristic of modern industrial societies. The division of labour is indicative of
the existence of a social contract to which people agree.
Human beings need every organ to work in order to function. Same with society,
if all institutions are not working properly, we are going to have problems. Small
societies, people who dress a like, talk the same languages
Now there is not the same collective consciousness. However, we still have peace
and harmony. Modern = organic solidarity, we all are doing important things and
we all know that we are involved in important areas and societies. Mechanical is
rural alberta, organic is bigger cities, but we all know we are working together
and in the same economy
Here is the problem, as we evolve, we see things get more complex and social
problems come out
Shift from mechanical to organic creates social pathologies
When things break down we don’t have a sense of right vs wrong.
The human greed + social institutions = problems like crime
The Division of Labour 2:
Anomie is the natural result of the transition from mechanical to organic solidarity
As the division of labour grows dramatically, human greed and desire generate social problems. He states:
It is man’s nature to be eternally dissatisfied constantly to advance, without relief or rest,
towards an indefinite goal… nothing can calm it, since its goal is far beyond all it can
attain Strain Theory 09/24/2013
The Division of Labour 3:
Anomie results when social institutions are unable to morally constrain human desires
Economic regulation is not enough, there should be moral regulation
If we are as bad as Durkheim says, why aren’t we all just killing each other?
We need societies to create norms to keep us in this social system from killing
Church, families, media,
Regulation is all around us
People are good society perverts us – Marx
The Division of Labour 4:
He believed that Marx had reversed the primary casual order.
Anomie class conflict
Class conflict anomie
Durkheim and Suicide (1897):
Durkheim believed there existed four types of suicide
Anomic The division of labour when societies implode. When people take their own lives we label them
anomic – first nations people
Something here about society being destroyed by colonialism where the whole order is gone now, FN
societies were decimated by colonialism
egoistic (general psychological explanation) – school shooters
altruistic – war hero
fatalistic – people that are too overregulated, slaves, students reading break
Types of Suicide: Strain Theory 09/24/2013
Too Strong Altruistic (terrorist, war hero) fatalistic (slaves)
Too Weak egoistic (protestants vs catholics) anomic (FN)
(single vs married)
(cult of the individual)
Society gives people the motivation to kill themselves, society is responsible –
Trying to say sociology has the answers to suicide, psychology is wrong
What we should see is that suicide is a random phenomenon
People that show signs of mental disorder go and get help
Married – less likely to take their own lives
Types of Suicide 2:
Altruistic (too much integration)
Anomic | Fatalistic
(not enough regulation) | (too much regulation)
Egoistic (too little integration)
Merton’s Strain Typology:
Acceptance of culturally Ability to achieve culturally induced goals
induced goals Strain Theory 09/24/2013
Conformity + +
Rebellion +\ +\
In the 1950’s merton said I like durkheims ideas but society does have a role in
encouraging people to be deviant. So maybe it has to do something with
encouraging people to commit.
Micro level interacting with macro level
Strain theory strain is the cause of deviant behavior, society induced strain
Economic strain induced by society as a whole
We put pressure on people to value materialism
We convince people in NA that this is how we live and if you don’t have a middle
class or upper class lifestyle that something is wrong with you
Merton says that not everyone can have this, but we put that pressure on them
The most common kind of deviant according to Merton – innovator
Someone who has bought into the American dream 100% and finds out they cant
High expectations and falling realizations
If I cant get it through legitimate means ill get it through illegitimate means
2 type is the ritualist, they have not accepted societies norms and goals, they go
through the motions in their day to day lives, has tons of opportunities but
doesn’t use them to the point that they are deviant
3 type is the retreatest they don’t want the American dream which is probably a
good thing because they wouldn’t be able to get it anyway, people who are
psychologically ill, people who use drugs and alcohol. In some kind of escapism
to get through life Strain Theory 09/24/2013
4 type of deviant is the rebel there are some people who don’t but the American
dream, they replace that dream with something different. They don’t accept the
normal methods for working towards these dreams – communists – society will
never just give up is power, force must be used if one wants to create an
egalitarian society. Terrorists fall into this category as well
General Social Strain: very applicable to today
In an attempt to explain why males are more frequently involved in crime and deviance, Agnew developed
general strain theory
He argued that females experience as much strain as do males
Males and females respond to the strain quite differently
Not just economic strain, other kinds of strain too
Males are more likely to act out violently when they are under strain – being
powerful and economically successful is part of being a “male”
For a female to do this it is deviant
A female may have an eating disorder
General Social Strain 2:
Three types of strain:
An inability to achieve positively valued goals Merton’s innovator Macro Level
Removal or threat to remove positively valued stimuli (i.e. losing a friend or parent) Psychological,
experienced by individual
To present a threat to one with noxious or negative valued stimuli (ie. Aggression, violence)
Psychological, experienced by individual
Agnew tried to incorporate control theory to this – will talk about later
Merton never really focused on corporate crime, and why not?
Do we have a unity of goals in North America? Do we really have an American Dream?
Critique of capitalism absent buying for the means of production etc
Few specifics as to appropriate punishment said nothing about sanctioning, says if we want
to reduce crime we tell people the American dream is a lie, or provide more
opportunities to people through social programs
Ignored the importance of labeling and learning Strain Theory 09/24/2013 Ecology Theory 09/24/2013
Crime is an overhead you have to pay if you want to live in the city George Moscone
Recent Calgary Homicides:
On Sunday Oct 13, Homicide in Ranchlands. Andrew Douglas Murray killed his mother Lois. She was a
grief counsellor. *He looks crazy in photo
October 16 Fatal hit and run, woman apprehended Chestermere
Oct 16 people looking for a man who killed his wife. Dustin Paxon in court on multiple charges of assault
The Chicago School:
In the 1920’s, Albion Small was given the task of creating the first department of sociology in the United
States. He hired the best faculty across the nation with an interest in social issues. The Chicago school of
sociology was intent on understanding the “natural laws” of social existence. They has an interest in how
communities and neighborhoods deteriorated
We must solve the problems “xenophobia” – fear of people who are different than
Created sociology department, we can choose people who have a natural interest
The Chicago School 2:
At the time, most people explained crime and deviance with individualistic explanations. By contrast
Chicago school theorists noted unique processes taking place within communities. In a nutshell, they
argued that social space or ecology, was responsible for crime and deviance
Like today, focus is on individualistic experience.
But here, they said it was ecology, our environment is responsible for crime in
Said we need to use field research to analyze our urban space, doing sociology
from afar just isn’t going to cut it
Influenced by Durkheim
Interested in problems from the mechanical solidatity to mechanical
If society changes too quickly, if norms change too quickly, you will have
problems Ecology Theory 09/24/2013
Example of same sex marriage
When it was in the courts, some people were very upset, but it wasn’t going to
effect their marriages Ecology Theory 09/24/2013
Why would they care if members of the same sex could marry?
When normative change happens quickly, what is the fear that some people
When society is changing and a new normative order is put into place, and you're
not in it, you feel like society is going past you and you don’t have a say and that
your values morals ethics are not valid and that you are thinking in an old way
You think what you are doing in no longer considered right
WI Thomas thought that women should have the right to female contraception
The Chicago School 3:
was influenced by:
Durkheims idea on mechanical and organic solidarity (normative change)
The tremendous population growth in Chicago
WW1, crash of the stock market, industrialism, urbanization, the suppression on union activism and
There were those who embraced rapid social change and those who wanted a return to the good old days
when white people dominated America
There arose nativism: a collective action involving hostility to preserve culture (American culture)
W. I Thomas 1927:
Thomas and Znaniecki published “The Polish Peasant in America”
There were disruptive forces attached to immigration. People had problems assimilating and it caused
deviant behavior on both parts
The Polish Peasant:
Thomas and Znaniecki analyzed personal journals and diaries to understand the difficulties experienced by
Polish immigrants to Chicago
“Old world” rural values did not work in the “new world”
the new world being the USA
Social controls were difficult to exert
The absence of a normative order created an “anything goes” mentality Ecology Theory 09/24/2013
That when norms change too quickly, we don’t know right or wrong. In such a
society you can do whatever you want too. Its this mentality that allows for crime
and deviance to occur
In “culture, conflict and crime”, sellin notes the difficulties experienced by montagnais Indians problems
associated with implementing french laws in colonies such as Algeria
Basically textbook Durkheim
As some people are left out while society changes, crime and deviance will occur
A Sicilian fathers family honor in new jersey
Culture conflicts are a natural outgrowth of processes of social differentiation
Burgess and Park:
Concentric Zone Model
They argued that what happens is you will have a central business district, a zone
in transition, working class zone, residential zone and commuter zone
Know how to label this diagram!
Transitional zone has highest rates of crime and deviance, very difficult to
establish a normative order
Why is there an anything goes attitude? This is where immigrants tend to move
into, they often lack money, it is undesirable
They said this is the key to crime. We know bigger cities have more crime than
mid size cities do. Its not the entire city where crime takes place and we think we
know whats going on in this area
Could it be a lack of organization?
We would need to reorganize society.
Maybe we have to find ways to make that possible to create norms that are stable
Look at Fort McMurray
Big drug problem
Gangs, high rates of assault
We would have to say transition zone is where all the crime is
Steve says hes not so sure.
Shaw and McKay (1942): Ecology Theory 09/24/2013
Social disorganization theorists, they came to these 4 conclusions regarding the ecological model of crime
Social problems are spatially produced and this is demonstrated by mapping where they take place in cities
Transition zone has the highest level of social problems lessens as you move outward
Transition zone always has the highest regardless of ethnic group inhabiting the area
All types of social problems exist: mental disorder, prostitution, suicide, alcoholism, infant mortality, juvenile
delinquency, crime, disease, and poverty
Many types of deviant acts best explained by pathology, not the case. We see lots
of these happening in the transition zone
We can map things out,
Looking at Abbeydale NE not really crime ridden, some crime
Looking at Beltline (transition zone) a lot more. 500+ for this area in last 6mos
Discovery Ridge Not a lot is happening
Steve agrees that social disorganization does not work perfectly for Calgary
Deviant Service Centers 1:
Some people say that there is other ways like wedges etc, and they point out that
Calgary doesn’t really fit. There exists multiple nuclei – look at Vancouver, many
surrounding communities. Each one has its own central zone and then they
Gillis better to think of deviant service centers where crime can flourish
Rejects social disorganization in pure form. Instead, he refers to deviant service centers, as areas of cities
in which crime and deviance can flourish. Cities allow for
High levels of specialization
High levels of coordination
Economies of scale
Why doesn’t crime flourish equally throughout the city? Is it a lack of normative
Maybe city planners better start thinking about keeping people in the area
Deviant Service Centers 2: Ecology Theory 09/24/2013
Why do they not exist elsewhere?
When we have street crime, we feel inclined to call the police. The police will take
it seriously. When there are other crimes that are easier to hide, do they take it as
Could it be that crime and deviance are simply more conspicuous in the zone of transition? Is it simply
density? Does dilapidation have something to do with it?
Philip Zimbardo prison experiences in the basement of Harvard.
Purchased 2 vehicles, abandoned them, put them in 2 different communities
In Harvard people trashed it within days
In fancy community they didn’t do that, he had to go up to the vehicle to get people to do damage to it
Maybe dilapidation encourages people to do crime and deviance
Dilapidation The inability to realize ones values, to be who you want to be, maybe opportunity is lacking?
Maybe being faithful? Maybe being able to stay with a job?
Argues that we should pay closer attention to the city as a cause of crime. Looking at Seattle he maintains
that the transition zone is characterized by high density, poverty and transience. Further he maintains that
moral cynicism, increases opportunities for crime and increased motivation for crime are apparent.
Argues that there is merit to looking at crime this way
Look like a nice guy, socio religion prof
“moral cynicism” – key variable
people don’t think morals and norms are important
moral cynicism causes crime
1.The greater the density of a neighborhood, the more association between those most predisposed to
saying crime is like an apple rotting in a barrel
when you make the opportunity, you’re going to have more of it
2.The greater the density of a neighborhood, the higher the level of moral cynicism Ecology Theory 09/24/2013
That people are going to start transmitting more of their delinquent values in
areas where there is no clear right and wrong
3. To the extent that neighborhoods are dense and poor, homes will be crowded
4 . Where homes are crowded, there will be lower levels of supervision of the children
these are known to be true, while we think that single parent children have a
problem looking after their children, larger families are also harder 67 kids
5. Poor, dense, mixeduse neighborhoods have higher transience rat