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SOCI 325 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ritualism In The Church Of England, Victimology, Dont

Course Code
SOCI 325
John Manzo
Study Guide

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Sociology 325 Midterm 2 Material
February 3, 2014
-first midterm on February 12, 2014
-study guide posted TMW or today
-sections 2-5
Rational Choice, Routine Activities, and Deterrence
The most venerable criminological theories were all determinist theories.
-in the 18th/19th century : outside an individuals control… that accounted for their
behaviour ie) biological determination
Biological Determinism: Lombroso, Sheldon
-you can determine the likelihood of someones criminal activity by looking at
biological features .. as opposed to talking about religion etc,,
-but that there are biological factors; introduced the idea that you could meause
someones head be able to determine if they will be likely to be criminal
-small head= small brain= more likely to be involed in criminal activity
-Sheldon: looked at body shape:
-very skinny or very fat… men who were average muscle morphs (actually most
people) are more likely to be criminal
Psychological Determinism: Maudsley, Goring
-criminality is associated with feeblemindedness not being very intelligent
-classical criminology: scientific biological and psychological
Social Determinism: Tarde, Comte, Quetelet, Durkheim
-Argued that yes there are factors that are outside of an individuals nature but they
are social ..
-Tarde: behavior in crowds was different than individual kevel behavior
-gotta look at the social environment not just the individual
-all were emphatic that the individual is not to blame!!
Some old and newer perspectives are not determinist but see crime as an outcome of
choice, i.e., of rational calculation.
-theres a lot of this: they were saying (late 18th century) criminal activity and all
human behaviour= rational calculation
Classical Utilitarianism: Locke, Bentham, Beccaria
-people make decisions.. to enhace the useful ness of the things in their lives
-a lot of award and not a lot of cost
-don’t do things because their costly and do things because they are rewarding
-anticipation of the pleasures outweigh the pains
-oriented towards behavioral science
-all human behaviours not just crime
-why do you rob a bank= rewards outweigh costs
Rational Choice Theory
-applying principles of rational choice to corporate crime

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-learned to become criminal encouraged to be criminal
-informed decisions about criminal behaviour based on a rational decision
Routine Activities Theory
-three conditions are met for a crime to happen:
-physical features of neighbourhoods which crime is apparent vs not
-Broken windows hypothesis: comes from bate cars… designed that if a car has a
broken window it was more targeted
-if you weaken a target= it will be attacked more
Suitable targets
-easily saleable goods…break into someones house.. you know that theirs
easily liquifyable googd
-cash; things that can be sold
-also one that is in a setting that has easy entry and exit
-a house that is relativily isolated and its fenced= which means that they
do have goods and a freeway ramp so easy to get away as we
Motivated offenders
young men.. (ex)
Absence of capable guardians
People who can defend themselves
Routine activities theory is associated with “lifestyle” theories of victimology,
because it accounts for victimization based on the “routine activities” of crime
victims and suggests practices to avoid it including target hardening and other
forms of security as well as area projects, etc.
-Victimology: look at things like how victims behaviours in certain behaviours
that can lead to their murder
-ex) bar fights act in a way= escalating
-slut shaming: that if you dress a certain way you deserve to be raped=
idea behind victimology:
-blaming victims for their victimization= much easier to prevent this than
-blaming sexual assault victims
-routine activities that crime victims that perpretators use
-target hardening: things like…. Locks, alrarm systems
-area projects: you can improve the security in one house, what about the house
next house? …safety in neighborhoods
“Deterrence” relies on potential criminals rational capabilities.
-are criminals rational?
-if we do these things that it is not an appropriate target
-everytime lock a bike up… probably ways to break the lock but the criminal
wont go after my bike because its too much of a hassle to break the locks
-we rely on their rational behaviour
-claims of deterrence (concept) that crime can be prevented wither by providing
lessons for the larger population or to people who committed crime before
Two forms:

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General deterrence: teach everybody; ads advising against date rape;
against drunk driving= exposing as many people as possible to general
Specific deterrence: people who already are criminals teaching them… not
to do the same crime again
-after someone goes through the program their not supposed to do it
again… does it work?
February 5, 2014
Evidence both for and against deterrence is abundant, but research into the
“rational capabilities” of criminals is less so, eg, Kenneth Tunnel found that
criminals were NOT “rational” because they only considered rewards and not
-deterence has to have 2 characteristics deterrence has to be: SWIFT; CERTAIN
AND SEVERE (if missing one than its a fail)
-always severe (imprisonment) but not always certain and swift
-capital punishment not highly deterrent
-US if one state has capital punishment the one beside it might not but murder
rates might not be that different
-capital punishmenet IS NOT an effective detterent
-because it is neither swift of certain
-millions of dollars in cost= decision is automatically appeal
-expensive to house criminals on death row (damian= death row= biography)
why not just kill them right way? Vbecause have to be 100% certain that this
person is guilty
-if you made the death penality… swift, severve and certain then it might works
-Why support it than still? Nonacademic= satisfies their feelings that they got
what the criminal deserves
-most effective deterent: cable tv= it was common to steal cable;
-Tunnel: conducted interviews with convicted buglars diamond thieves wear
black and sneak rational criminals these high stakes property criminals (not
people who get into bar fights)
-but they did not behanve rationally goal was based on the potential pay off
didn’t really know that the punishment was jail ie) saying that omg when my
mom came to visit me in jail
-these are the ones we expect them to be rational
Social Disorganization Theories
Robert Park on urban ecology
-first chair..back in the 30s said where can we conduct sociology ..journalist
-he reported crime in the 1920s in Chicago .. studied it as a sociology lab--
Urban “zones”
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