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AGR 1110 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: List Of Domesticated Animals, Niche Market, Nutrient Density

Course Code
AGR 1110
Andy Robinson
Study Guide

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Agriculture Mid Term 2 Study Questions:
1. What is the order of domestication of species?
a. Dog, Sheep, Goat, Pig, Cow, Horse, Donkey, Water Buffalo
How did the process of early domestication occur? How did it start?
- Wolves hung around early human encampments, stayed to guard or hunt, became domes-
ticated, humans shifted from hunting gathering to growing an producing food, started to keep animals
for meat and milk, started with small rumenants eventually worked up to animals that were used for draft
and transport rather than food.
2. List and Describe the factors that are required for successful domestication?
a. variable, non competitive diet - should provide food, not compete for it, ex. use waste (pigs), or eat
material inedible to humans (grass)
b. Short Life Cycle - Mature quickly, breed easily in captivity - no large investment in juvenielle non
productive members
c. Suited to the Climate needs of the people ex. tropical vs. temperate - in tropical regions species
differed because there was a need for disease and parasite resistance - in temperate regions this
was not as great a challenge due to cold periods however the animals needed to be able to with-
stand the heat an cold periods.
d. Calm Manageable Temperament - confinement housing, trainability, cant kill captors or constantly
run away
e. Social Structure - group hierarchy, accept human alpha/leader
3. What were some of the benefits and effects of the development of animal domestication?
a. integration of confined animals into production system that used animal waste to supply nutrients
for crops grown (fertilizer, recycler)
b. close food supply
c. improved diet - improve nutrition = society started to evolve
d. effect: animals became a measure of wealth and were used in trade for spouses
4. As humans became more adept to domesticating animals they branched beyond animals for food,
what were the other animals used for?
a. Second purpose animals (oxen)
b. Single purpose animals (draft) - developed after - as agriculture could support the specialization.
5. What was the effect and roles of the Domesticated Draft Animals?
a. increased productivity an capability
b. Peacetime fieldwork - intensification of production systems
c. Wartime role - rapid movement- attack, travel, protection of rider, extended capabilities ie move
supplies (ex.. Hannibal, Alex. the Great, Genghis Khan)
d. Transportation - expand sales, explore and colonize

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6. What are he most significant livestock industries today in approximate order of revenue?
a. Dairy - milk and meat -
b. Beef - meat
c. Swine - meat
d. Poultry - meat and eggs
e. Fish (aquaculture) - meat
f. Sheep - meat and fibre
7. What are some measures of the value of industries to the farmer?
a. Farm Cash Receipts:
b. further processing returns
8. Why might Farm cash receipts be a better measure of the value of the industry to the farmer?
a. Farm Cash Receipts are a measure of the revenue returning to the farm directly and not to other
players in the value chain.
9. Describe the trend of the Farm Cash Receipts in Canadian Livestock?
b. Cattle 6.4B (includes culled dairy cattle sold for meat and cattle sold as breeding stock)
c. Dairy 5.8B (revenue from dairy products)
d. Hogs 3.8B
e. Chicken 2.3B and 790M in eggs
f. Fish 1B
g. Turkey 353M
h. Fur 192 M
i. Sheep and Lambs 159M
j. Miscellaneous 453M
10. What are 2 common challenges to the Animal Industry an Farmers? Describe.
a. Input Cost of Feed (largest input) - external factors change globally cost i.e.. ethanol production
and Chicago Board of Trade corn futures drive feed costs
b. Perceptions of the urban population - 98.8 % of Ontario’s population is urban - out of touch with
agriculture, making consumer choices based on myth and potential misinformation
i. don’t know where their meat, milk and eggs come from
ii. don’t know how their meat milk, and eggs are produced
11. What are some of the differences between sectors of the agricultural industry?
a. Supply management (marketing system) - dairy and poultry
b. Regulatory oversight- Aquaculture is heavily regulated
c. Consumer Preference/ demographics
12. Define Extensive and Intensive Production

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a. Extensive production - outdoor grazing/ browsing systems, large land base, few animals per land
unit, in dry areas like the prairies - where land can not support as many animals (acres per ani-
b. Intensive production - animals housed, fed stored feed, nutrient density, occurs close to markets
so that lots of food can be produced close to urban market (animals per hectare/acre) - mass me-
dia calls “factory farming”
13. Which is most prominently used in Ontario extensive or intensive?
a. Intensive
14. Why did intensive farming production systems evolve? Why do they exist today?
a. to produce large quantities of food for cheep prices
b. evolved because of the demand for decreasing commodity prices.
15. What are some benefits of intensive farming in respect to animal welfare?
a. less disease
b. less animal-animal bullying
c. less predation
16. What are specialized products for niche markets?
a. Organic production
b. Branded Products
c. Specific Production - processing practices
d. Value-added Products
17. Why are specialty products becoming more prevalent?
a. increased capabilities in animal nutrition, further processing, improved knowledge of the role of
various beneficial compounds like Omega-3 fatty acids in human health have generated a num-
ber of new functional foods
b. marketing based on exploiting consumer preference, and mis-conceptions
1) What is world dairy production? Who are the top producers?
1) 246 million
2) India (38.5 million), Brazil (21.8 m), Sudan (1.5 M), China (12.35 M)
2) What is Canada’s dairy production?
1) 0.98 M
3) What is Canada’s stake to claim in world dairy production?
- good cows, we supply 20% of the worlds Holstein genetics
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