Agriculture Mid Term 2 Study Questions:
1. What is the order of domestication of species?
a. Dog, Sheep, Goat, Pig, Cow, Horse, Donkey, Water Buffalo
How did the process of early domestication occur? How did it start?
- Wolves hung around early human encampments, stayed to guard or hunt, became domes-
ticated, humans shifted from hunting gathering to growing an producing food, started to keep animals
for meat and milk, started with small rumenants eventually worked up to animals that were used for draft
and transport rather than food.
2. List and Describe the factors that are required for successful domestication?
a. variable, non competitive diet - should provide food, not compete for it, ex. use waste (pigs), or eat
material inedible to humans (grass)
b. Short Life Cycle - Mature quickly, breed easily in captivity - no large investment in juvenielle non
c. Suited to the Climate needs of the people ex. tropical vs. temperate - in tropical regions species
differed because there was a need for disease and parasite resistance - in temperate regions this
was not as great a challenge due to cold periods however the animals needed to be able to with-
stand the heat an cold periods.
d. Calm Manageable Temperament - confinement housing, trainability, cant kill captors or constantly
e. Social Structure - group hierarchy, accept human alpha/leader
3. What were some of the benefits and effects of the development of animal domestication?
a. integration of confined animals into production system that used animal waste to supply nutrients
for crops grown (fertilizer, recycler)
b. close food supply
c. improved diet - improve nutrition = society started to evolve
d. effect: animals became a measure of wealth and were used in trade for spouses
4. As humans became more adept to domesticating animals they branched beyond animals for food,
what were the other animals used for?
a. Second purpose animals (oxen)
b. Single purpose animals (draft) - developed after - as agriculture could support the specialization.
5. What was the effect and roles of the Domesticated Draft Animals?
a. increased productivity an capability
b. Peacetime fieldwork - intensification of production systems
c. Wartime role - rapid movement- attack, travel, protection of rider, extended capabilities ie move
supplies (ex.. Hannibal, Alex. the Great, Genghis Khan)
d. Transportation - expand sales, explore and colonize 6. What are he most significant livestock industries today in approximate order of revenue?
a. Dairy - milk and meat -
b. Beef - meat
c. Swine - meat
d. Poultry - meat and eggs
e. Fish (aquaculture) - meat
f. Sheep - meat and fibre
7. What are some measures of the value of industries to the farmer?
a. Farm Cash Receipts:
b. further processing returns
8. Why might Farm cash receipts be a better measure of the value of the industry to the farmer?
a. Farm Cash Receipts are a measure of the revenue returning to the farm directly and not to other
players in the value chain.
9. Describe the trend of the Farm Cash Receipts in Canadian Livestock?
b. Cattle 6.4B (includes culled dairy cattle sold for meat and cattle sold as breeding stock)
c. Dairy 5.8B (revenue from dairy products)
d. Hogs 3.8B
e. Chicken 2.3B and 790M in eggs
f. Fish 1B
g. Turkey 353M
h. Fur 192 M
i. Sheep and Lambs 159M
j. Miscellaneous 453M
10. What are 2 common challenges to the Animal Industry an Farmers? Describe.
a. Input Cost of Feed (largest input) - external factors change globally cost i.e.. ethanol production
and Chicago Board of Trade corn futures drive feed costs
b. Perceptions of the urban population - 98.8 % of Ontarios population is urban - out of touch with
agriculture, making consumer choices based on myth and potential misinformation
i. dont know where their meat, milk and eggs come from
ii. dont know how their meat milk, and eggs are produced
11. What are some of the differences between sectors of the agricultural industry?
a. Supply management (marketing system) - dairy and poultry
b. Regulatory oversight- Aquaculture is heavily regulated
c. Consumer Preference/ demographics
12. Define Extensive and Intensive Production a. Extensive production - outdoor grazing/ browsing systems, large land base, few animals per land
unit, in dry areas like the prairies - where land can not support as many animals (acres per ani-
b. Intensive production - animals housed, fed stored feed, nutrient density, occurs close to markets
so that lots of food can be produced close to urban market (animals per hectare/acre) - mass me-
dia calls factory farming
13. Which is most prominently used in Ontario extensive or intensive?
14. Why did intensive farming production systems evolve? Why do they exist today?
a. to produce large quantities of food for cheep prices
b. evolved because of the demand for decreasing commodity prices.
15. What are some benefits of intensive farming in respect to animal welfare?
a. less disease
b. less animal-animal bullying
c. less predation
16. What are specialized products for niche markets?
a. Organic production
b. Branded Products
c. Specific Production - processing practices
d. Value-added Products
17. Why are specialty products becoming more prevalent?
a. increased capabilities in animal nutrition, further processing, improved knowledge of the role of
various beneficial compounds like Omega-3 fatty acids in human health have generated a num-
ber of new functional foods
b. marketing based on exploiting consumer preference, and mis-conceptions
1) What is world dairy production? Who are the top producers?
1) 246 million
2) India (38.5 million), Brazil (21.8 m), Sudan (1.5 M), China (12.35 M)
2) What is Canadas dairy production?
1) 0.98 M
3) What is Canadas stake to claim in world dairy production?
- good cows, we supply 20% of the worlds Holstein genetics - 20 M cattle (80 M before BSE), $73 M for semen and $8M for embryos
4) What percent of food products on a value basis does Dairy products make? What is the dollar figure?
15% - 13.4 Billion
5) What two provinces dominate dairy production?
- Ontario and Quebec have 70% - 32.2% in Ontario and 37.2% in Quebec
6) How many dairy farms in canada? what is the trend in dairy farms over the last two decades?
- less than 13,000 dairy farms in Canada today, this number has been decreasing, in 1992
there were 31,200 and in 2000 there were 19,400
7) What are the total net farm receipts over?
- 5 billion
8) What is the average herd size?
- 80 cows (size has been increasing as farm numbers decrease)
9) What is the trend seen in production per cow?
- increases (steadily) in production per cow
10) How many people are employed by the Dairy Sector in Canada?
11) Describe Ontario Dairy Statistics: # of producers, farm size, and trends?
- 4191 producers, 75 milking cows, trend is decreasing number of farms, increasing size of herd
12) What are the milk and cattle sales per year in ontario? How many cows are there? How many liters
per day are produced by each cow? What is the total fluid milk and cream sales and what are the total
- 247, 000 $, 320,000 cows, 27L per day each cow, 1.16 billion total fluid and cream sales, 1.7 B
total cash receipts. (ALMOST 2B annually)
13) What is the average age of Ontarian Dairy Farmers?
- 45 years and aging
14) What is the history behind Supply Management (Quota)?
- post WWI - dairy producers suffered in the marketplace
- 1963 study to help failing dairy industry, supply management was proposed to Ontario Govern-
- 1965 Milk Act passed
15) What does Supply Management do? How do they do this?