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Agriculture 2350 Midterm Study Notes.docx

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AGR 2350
Vern Osborne

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Agriculture 2350 Midterm Study Notes Horses -the following sports fall under the English category: -pony/4-H clubs -eventing/combined training -dressage -hunters/jumpers-show horses -hunt clubs -polo -pleasure riding -the following sports fall under the Western category: -4-H clubs -Rodeo -Cutting -Reining -Trail Riding -Western pleasure shows -pleasure riding -the rest of the sports fall under the “other” category: -endurance riding -therapeutic riding (CTRA) -Driving competitions-carriage or combined -There are 4 main types of horse racing: -Thoroughbreds: horses are raced around grass/dirt or artificial tracks -Standardbreds: horses are raced by being harnessed to 2-wheeled sulkies -Quarter horse: horses are raced on a straightaway course for distances of 201-796m -Steeple chase: not breed specific like others, horses race across open country, over hedges, fences etc -all 3 levels of government benefit from the horse racing industry -currently 29 billion invested in the Canadian horse industry -the average investment for an owner in their horse depends on its use: -pleasure ~8,418 -competition ~25,762 -racing ~32,272 -the average resting temp of a horse is 97-10̊ F -the average resting pulse of a horse is 24-48 bpm -the average resting respiration of a horse is 8-28 breaths/min -horses are measured in hands- one hand=4 inches -Types of Horses: 1. Cold Blood-large horses with a gentle disposition and placid style. Descendants of the ancient European breeds used for farming, hauling and other heavy work. Ex. Clydesdale, Shire, Haflinger 2. Warm Blood- warm bloods have smaller heads and bodies compared to draft horses, they also tend to be less excitable than hot blooded horses, good all around horses for riding and work. Ex. Lipizanner, standard bred, quarter horse 3. Hot blood- refers to temperament, as they tend to be fiery tempered. Hot blooded horses are known for their speed as they have lighter bodies Ex.Arabian, Thoroughbred,Akhi-Teke -top breeds in the world: -arabian –quarter horse- paint- miniature horse-thoroughbred -long eared breeds -mammoth ass-they are crossed to produce draft mules -standard donkey- crossed for driving mules and pets -miniature donkey -Mule(cross between a donkey and a horse)-sterile, body is more like a horse -wild horses: -Prezwalski -mustangs -sable island -basic equine gaits -walk-4 beat movement -trot-2 beat movement -canter-3 beat movement -gallop-4 beat movement(similar to the canter but the horse’s legs move at one time) -horses have what is considered a “stay”mechanism, a series of muscles and ligaments can “lock” the main joints into position. This allows horses to relax in the standing position with little fatigue. Horses sleeping while standing however can only enter a light sleep -The only time horses lie down to sleep is when they’re getting what is referred to a REM sleep. They only have to do this for an hour or 2 every couple days to meet their minimum required REM sleep -Horse “vices” -Cribbing- biting/setting teeth against an object while sucking air -Weaving- swaying back and forth while standing at the stall door -Wood chewing -Pacing- walking the fence line in an agitated manner -Pawing- digging at ground or stall floor -Head shaking- moving head back/forth or up/down in a rhythmic motion -Amare is seasonally polyestrous-having multiple heat cycles during certain seasons of the year (late spring to mid fall) -Major external factor causing the mare to start cycling regularly is the amount of daylight she is exposed to-can be artificially extended simply by using a light source of sufficient power and duration that suggests spring is closer than it actually is -stress phase response in a horse: alarmresistancefatigue -theory that respiratory muscles are aided largely by the mechanics of the gait causing a “piston- pendulum”effect, thus decreasing breathing efforts -glycogen decreases with exercising -horses are hindgut fermenters as opposed to ruminants Dairy Cows -types of dair
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