University of Guelph
Department of Animal & Poultry Science
ANSC *2340 Structure and Function of Farm Animals
First Midterm Examination: February 7, 2012
Lab section (day of week and time):
This examination has a total of 103 possible marks and is worth 25% of the
final grade for the course.
Please enter your name and ID number on both this examination paper and
the computer card. Both must be handed in after the exam has been
There are 2 sections to this exam.
Section 1 of the exam includes 35 multiple choice questions that are worth 2
marks for a total of 70 marks.
Section 2 of the exam includes 9 short answer questions. This section is
worth 33 marks in total
Answer all 44 questions. Also fill in the answer for the 36 multiple choice
question that asks the version of the exam written based on the letter of the
alphabet in the upper right hand corner on this page.
1 1) Which of the following is true regarding ruminant and monogastric digestive tracts?
a. The dental pad of ruminants replaces the lower incisors and canines of the
b. Mechanical (physical) digestion is important in the rumen but this process does not
occur in the simple stomach, monogastric.
c. The forestomach in ruminants is nonsecretory which is different than the secretory
function found in the avian proventriculus.
d. When comparing the stomach and small and large intestine, the stomach makes up the
majority of gastrointestinal tract capacity in both horses and cattle.
e. The acid and digestive enzyme secretions found in the porcine stomach are also found
in the ruminant abomasum and the avian ventriculus.
2) How does the avian digestive system differ from mammalian digestive systems ?
a. While teeth, lips, and tongue are extensively used for food gathering by mammals,
birds can use their beaks and claws for gathering food.
b. There is no difference between the mammalian and avian esophagus as this structure is
used to take ingested food and directly take it to the stomach (ventriculus in birds).
c. The avian ventriculus has similar functions to the ruminant stomach with acid and
d. Cattle use rumination and mixing in the rumen for particle size reduction while birds
use the muscular proventriculus to grind food using ingested grit.
e. The mammalian monogastric stomach can be used to store food while food can not be
stored in any part of the avian gastrointestinal tract.
3) Which of the following best describes the hock joint?
a) Also known as the carpus.
b) Located proximal to the shank in the forelimb.
c) Located on the dorsal surface of farm animals.
d) Located cranial to the flank in pigs.
e) Located proximal to the shank in the hindlimb.
4) Which of the following accurately describes location of body structures?
a) Cranial is the same as posterior.
b) The hook bones would be located on the medial side of the dairy cow.
c) The flank is dorsal to the loin in pigs.
d) The rump is anterior to the shoulder in pigs.
e) The pin bones are caudal to the loin in beef cattle.
5) Which of the following is true regarding the domestication of pigs?
a) Pig temperament has improved by breeding pigs for leanness.
b) The Chinese had a major influence in changing size and conformation of pigs.
c) Hair and skin color is still important currently for identifying breeds with specific growth and
d) Meat quality is a major priority in current breeding programs.
e) The Spanish had a major influence in changing size and conformation of pigs.
2 6) How are fat depots influential?
a) Seam fat is valued highly by the packer.
b) The hypodermis will provide thermal insulation while kidney fat acts as shock absorber.
c) There needs to be a minimal amount of intermuscular fat over the carcass for beef to grade.
d) As body condition score increases, signs of estrus and percentage pregnant decreases.
e) The amount of intermuscular fat on a carcass is related to beef tenderness.
7) Which of the following is true regarding the respiratory tract?
a) Incoming air can only be warmed by flowing through the turbinate bones.
b) Meatuses are airfilled cavities that communicate with the nasal passages.
c) Conchae in the nasal passages warms, humidifies, and filters air that has entered the nasal
d) The epiglottis directly covers the trachea to ensure food does not enter the respiratory system
when an animal swallows.
e) An increase in diameter of structures in the bronchial tree is present as they lead from the
bronchi to the terminal bronchioles.
8) Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory tract?
a) Body temperature regulation.
b) Removing water from the body.
c) Regulation of acid/base balance.
d) Manipulating composition of blood.
e) Gas exchange.
9) Which of the following is true regarding the domestication of cattle?
a) The development of Continental breeds of cattle with their large size has enabled early
finishing with high degrees of marbling in beef production.
b) The cattle that we feed in Canada today are linked to Bos longiforns cattle.
c) Bos primigenius cattle developed a shoulder hump, not much of a dewlap, and droopy ears as
it evolved into today’s Bos indicus cattle.
d) Bos nomadicus was the predecessor of current British and Continental breeds.
e) The European Auroch was the predecessor of current Bos indicus cattle.
10) Which of the following is best associated with all the modifications of the epidermis that we
discussed (integument, hair, hooves, and horns)?
b) Blood Vessels.
3 11) How does age or sex of animal influence animal production?
a) At 17 to 19 weeks of age, a broiler is typically marketed as a roaster.
b) Steers have superior growth performance as compared to bulls.
c) There is no difference in liveweight when marketing gilts and sows.
d) Intramuscular fat deposition is greater in bulls versus steers.
e) None of the above.
12) Pick identify the false statement regarding teeth.
a) All mammals have a set of milk teeth which will fall out and be replaced by permanent teeth.
b) Both the root of the tooth and the crown are covered by cementum according to the textbook.
c) Dentin surrounds the tooth pulp.
d) Canine teeth are also referred to as eye teeth.
e) The upper incisors found in herbivores such as horse has been replaced by a dental pad in
13) Which of the following statements is true regarding hooves and horns?
a) Both are made up of dense keratin.
b) Both are made up of modified dermis.
c) The corium in the hoof provides nutrients for growth of the outer layer of the hoof while the
corium in horn acts as the site for horn growth.
d) While hooves have many characteristics similar to skin, an individual hoof has no relationship
to the skin covering the rest of the limb.
e) Two of the above.
14) Name the structure which spermatozoa must travel through to get from the cervix to the
a) Fallopian tubes.
c) Uterine tubes.
15)Hardware disease can afflict cattle and may involve barbed wire penetrating
i) initially before eventually penetrating ii) .
a) i) reticulum ii) lungs.
b) i) reticulum ii) spleen.
c) i) omasum ii) heart.
d) i) rumen ii) heart.
e) i) rumen ii) liver.
4 16) Food passes thru the porcine gastrointestinal tract in the following order:
a) Esophagus, stomach, large intestine, caecum, small intestine.
b) Esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, caecum.
c) Esophagus, stomach, ileum, duodenum, jejunum, caecum, large intestine.
d) Esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, large intestine.
e) Esophagus, stomach, jejunum, duodenum, ileum, large intestine, caecum.
17) How does the epidermis differ from dermis?
a) The epidermis is highly vascularized unlike the dermis.
b) Both are rich in fibroelastic connective tissue for structural strength and flexibility.
c) While epidermis has melanocytes for melanin synthesis, dermis has fibroblasts for collagen
and elastin synthesis.
d) Keratinization and cornification are important processes for both skin layers.
e) The dermis makes up the majority of the total mass of the skin since millions of dermal cells
are shed every day.
18) Identify structures 1 through 4 in the kidney.
a) 1 = urethra, 2 = pelvis, 3 = cortex, 4= medulla.
b) 1 = urethra, 2 = pelvis, 3 = medulla, 4= cortex.
c) 1 = ureter, 2 = pelvis, 3 = cortex, 4= medulla.
d) 1 = ureter, 2 = pelvis, 3 = medulla, 4= cortex.
e) 1 = ureter,