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Animal Science
ANSC 2340
Linda Hunter

Poultry Ducks: major industry in Asia, but not in North America Turkeys: more than half the turkeys are found in northern America Geese and Guinea Fowl : major industry in Asia, North America has lowest level of production Consumption  United States (%47) is the greatest consumer of both broiler meat and turkey, following by china. Egg Production 60,678, 391 tonnes of chicken eggs are commercially produced world-wide per year 4,907,418 tonnes of eggs from other birds are commercially produced Chicken Production by Province: Ontario being the biggest, then Quebec - In Ontario 1,260 broiler chicken farms, employs over 5, 000 Poultry Processing Eggs: eggs are collected and graded at a grading station, where they are packaged and distributed (94 in Ontario) Poultry: are slaughtered at both provincially and federally inspected plants - 21 federally inspected plants - 49 provincially inspected plants Quota System  Quota is a license granted by the Chicken Farmers of Ontario  CFO does not buy/sell or issue new quota  Instead, grants licenses which recognize ownership transfers between buyers and sellers of quota  All chickens produced and marketed in Ontario must be done on a quota basis  The exception is chicken raised on a private farm for a family’s personal consumption  The price of quota in March, 2006 was $57-58 per unit Common Egg Laying Breeds  single comb white leghorn  single comb rhode island red  barred Plymouth rock Alternative Livestock & Mink Facilities and Equipment Perimeter fence : prevents escapes and minimizes : revenue loss, disease from wildlife, cross breeding with wild mink Enhanced farm bio security and security: minimize contact with dogs, cats and wildlife Mink Sheds: long open sided, natural ventilation, 2 to 8 rows of pens, adequate natural light important for bringing mink into breeding season and for natural furring cycle Breeding/ Whelping Pens  raise kits until weaning/splitting of litters  12 to 15’ high, 24’ long and 14-18’ wide Furring/Growing/Pelting Pens  litters spilt and kits transferred to furring pens Feed : 80-90% of diet is meat or dairy products, 10-20% is cereal based Feeding Systems: 1) dry feed- option for small farms 2) wet feed- ont mink farms a. on farm processing (make food on farm) b. ready mix (sent to farm ready to feed) Feeding: feed is pumped from feeder to wire on tops of pens and nest boxes Watering Systems: automatic: waterline and nipples Manual: water cups and hose Manure Management  accumulates on the ground underneath the pens  removed from April to nov and frozen in the winter Year on a Mink Farm  breading is first 3 weeks of march, 4-5:1 male  goal is to breed 2 to 3 times, induced ovulation, gestation is 51 days  mid April: prepare for whelping season  late April, kits born in nest box 5-6 kids per litter, kits are readily fostered to other females  late may : being feeding kits solid feed on top of nest  June: kits weaned 6 to 8 weeks female is take from kits  July : vaccination  August: spate kits into furring pens, shed summer coat Deer, Elk, Bison, Wild Boar Markets • Meat • Velvet Antler & Hard Antler (deer & elk) • Trophy Hunting in Preserves (white tailed deer, red deer, elk, wild boar) – Not permitted in Ontario – Export markets to Quebec & some US states Strengths • Local niche value-added markets – success stories! • Nutritional qualities • North American species (bison, elk, deer) – consumer recognition • National producer organizations (Canadian Cervid Alliance, Canadian Bison Association BUT NOT wild boar) • Provincially inspected abattoirs can slaughter/process – ~ 49 bison plants – ~ 60 deer & elk plants Challenges • Lack substantive markets – Supply driven vs. market driven – Current meat supplies are insufficient to support supermarket distribution (chicken & egg syndrome re supply & demand) Inadequate marketing – Where can consumers find it – Lack of consumers awareness with products & preparation – Need for more convenient formats Fragmented industry infrastructure – lack consistent supply & quality – lack distribution channels – no federal slaughter/processing in Ontario Most lack proper animal handling facilities – no provincial producer organizations for deer, elk, wild boar Game Birds (pheasants, partridge & quail) • CFIA licenses hatcheries • Ministry of Natural Resources licenses issued June 2008 – 168 licenses “To Keep Game Birds in Captivity”. Can sell: • Eggs • Chicks • Flight conditioned birds for hunting • Meat birds Challenges • Lack marketing infrastructure – producer must market • Ontario Game Bird Association no longer act
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