1. What are five things to keep in mind when building something for animals?
Manure management, animal movement, people movement, feed movement, manure
management. You can engineer for wind but not light.
2. When an animal is under heat stress, what must it consume in order to have
proper ion balance and internal pH?
Electrolytes and sufficient water.
3. Four functions of ventilation?
Distribute fresh air uniformly to provide o2
Maintain temp within comfort zone
Exhaust respired air
(freedom from drafts)
4. Common ventilation problems? (4)
Air quality (especially in winter)
5. Why is insulation in building envelopes important?
To manage temp year round. In the winter, you want to avoid excess heat buildup near ceilings
and condensations forming, leading to humidity problems, microorganisms growing on the
ceiling and decreased air quality. In the summer, you want proper cooling by disabling heat from
penetrating the ceiling and walls, to allow for ventilation to control temperature.
6. Name five goals of housing horses and things we want for them when housing
1) Zero injuries from facilities or turnout
2) Develop social skills (juveniles)
4) Ability to forage
5) Minimize stereotypic behaviour
6) Opportunities for solitude
7. What’s Vern’s favorite type of feeding? Why?
Cafeteria style. Allows the animal to pick and choose what it wants to eat according to its
physiological and metabolic needs.
8. How does time spent eating compare to time spent lying down in horses, vs dairy
Horses 30-70% eating, 1-10% laying
Cows 6-8% eating, 50-60% lying
9. How do we prevent horses from being bored and developing stereoptypies? Enrich the environment with toys such as a jolly ball or lick it. Mirrors can help, but a companion
10. What are some things to consider when building a beef facility? (5)
1) Access to enough hay/fiber in a day
2) Old facilities can be renovated very well to house beef
3) Animal handling is very important
4) Feed must be kept clear of rain and elements
5) Water must be accessible year round
11. Between swine, poultry, dairy cows and beef, which one has the largest TNZ?
12. What behaviour trait/characteristic makes lying space very important when
Very social gregarious animals. They like to lie down in synchronicity. Not so much with eating,
but very much so with lying. And they like to lie together in a group.
13. Name four types of handling equipment.
Headgates, holding cutes, squeezes, loading chutes, crowding tubs
14. What design is desirable in terms of shape and view of the handler?
Circular, cattle will move more readily towards other cattle in front of them and respond well to
moving around a circular chute design. Ideally the handler is behind them or off to the side on an
angle, in order to encourage movement forward flight zone.
15. Name 5 behaviour traits of sheep.
1) Sheep do not like to be enclosed in a tight environment, and will move on their own into
2) Sheep move towards other sheep willingly
3) Sheep move away from workers and dogs
4) Sheep will move more willingly towards an open area than towards what they perceive
as a dead end
5) Very young lams that become separated from their mothers will want to return to the
area where they first became separated
6) Sheep react negatively to loud noises, yelling, and barking
16. What’s the problem with concrete walls? What’s a good thing about concrete
Bad – they don’t allow air flow and can be too hot in the summer.
Good – can act as an insulator in the winter
17. What are two breeds of meat rabbits?
New Zealand white and Californian
18. What’s the main physiological adaptation that rabbits have to combat heat stress?
How does it work? Lobes of the ears have complex mesh works of blood vessels which allows them to contract and
dilate to manage body temp. They orient their ears in or out to stretch the ear away from the
body and release more heat.
19. What are the negative impacts of heat stress on bunny performance?
Total and daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, total and daily gain, and welfare.
20. What is the main thing to consider when housing rabbits? Why?
Ventilation. Ammonia build up from ammonia releasing bacteria which work on urine. Excess
urea and nitrogen in the urine gets converted to ammonia which can cause problems to the
respiratory tracts and skin.
21. Why is pellet size important?
Too small and they create dust problems, also the rabbits do not like to eat the small pellets.
22. Describe the typical North-American maternity box? European?
North American varierty in shape and size, nest boxes in or out of pens, nest boxes are a
variety of materials
European standard shape, lower heights, typically plastic nest box outside of pen
23. Why is wire mesh important and what are standard sizes?
Foot injuries (sore hocks), has to be big enough that waste can fall through, not too much that
feet can, neighbors can chew limbs and tails. Standard size is 14 gauge mesh.
24. Is there a code of practice for rabbits? What problems can this cause?
No code of practice, problems with transport
25. How many fryers fit in a pen?
26. Are breeding bucks housed individually or in groups? Why?
Individually because they can fight
27. How are fryers transported? What problems can arise from this?
In poultry crates, 10-12 per crate. Often stacked, so defecate on neighbors. Problems when they
have to wait days to be processed.
28. Why is it important that research animal environments be optimized?
Welfare and animal health, scientific integrity, quality control and repeatability.
29. What are the 3R’s and why are they important in research?
Replace, refine, and reduce. This could imply better welfare and conditions.