SECTION A (Total = 15 marks)
Answer 15 of the 18 questions in this section (1 mark each)
-1/4 for 1 spelling error, -1/2 for 2 spelling errors etc.
1.Name the author of the book “Canine Nutrition”, which proposes that each breed of
dog has a specific range of diet ingredients it has become adapted to over its history.
2. What does the acronym ”DDGS” stand for when referring to products of corn
Distillers [1/4] Dried [1/4] Grains [1/4] and Solubles [1/4]
3. Unless it is advertised as a gravy or such like, what is the maximum percentage of
water permitted in canned pet foods?
4. Name two types of rancidity which may affect the quality of lipids in pet foods.
Hydrolytic [1/2] and oxidative [1/2]
5. What is the percentage digestibility of unprocessed feather meal?
6. A lack of which enzyme prevents cats from using beta-carotene as an effective
source of vitamin A?
15,15’-monooxygenase OR 15,15’-dioxygenase [either got the full mark]
7. Which two forms of vitamin A are readily interconverted in animal tissues?
Retinol [1/2] and retinal [1/2]
8. What colourful term has been used to describe mechanically deboned meat?
9. The minimum content of which two components must be indicated on a pet food
Crude protein [1/2] and crude fat [1/2]; -1/4 if didn’t write crude SECTION A (continued)
10. In a cat food labelled “Seafood Medley with Salmon”, what is the minimum amount
of salmon it must contain?
3 [3/4 – value] % [1/4 – unit]
11. Name one of the major companies involved in the commercial pet food market.
Accepted answers: Mars, Nestle, Purina, Hill’s, Iams, Medical-Royal Canin, Del Monte,
Menu Foods, Colgate-Palmolive
Brand names, stores, and governmental organizations not accepted
12. Name the two processes primarily used in the manufacture of dry foods for pets.
Steam [1/4] pelleting [1/4] and extrusion [1/2]
13. Soybean protein isolate would be a useful component in what specialized diets
produced for pets?
14. What does the abbreviation “GRAS” stand for in relation to pet food ingredients?
Generally [1/4] Recognized [1/4] As [1/4] Safe [1/4]
15. When cattle are slaughtered and processed for human consumption, approximately
what proportion of the animal remains as a source of by-products?
~50% (about half); 49% if specific
16. What does the abbreviation “SRM’s” stand for in the context of rendered
Specific Risk Materials
17. Name a pathogenic microbe which is killed by the heat used in processing animal
Acceptable answers: Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, Aspergillus, Clostridium botulinum,
Clostridium perfringens, Anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, Campylobacter, Penicillium, Avian
influenza, Foot and mouth disease, Pseudorabies virus
18. The very first commercial dog food was marketed in which decade? 1860 SECTION B (Total = 15 marks)
Answer 5 of the 6 questions in this section (3 marks each)
1.Explain why sunbathing in cats does not provide them with a source of
Exposure to UV (ultraviolet) radiation converts 7-dehydrocholeserol to cholecalsiferol
(Vitamin D3) in cat skin (1 mark). However, a high activity (1/2 mark) of 7-
dehydrocholeserol 7-reductase (1/2 mark) converts cholecalciferol (vit D3) back to 7-
dehydrocholesterol, so there is no (net) production of Vit D3 (1 mark).
2. How are “digests” produced and what role do they play in pet-food formulation?
Digests are protein hydrolysates (1/2 mark). Heat (1/4), enzymes (1/4), organic acids
(1/4) or bacterium (1/4) reduce proteins to small peptides (1/2 mark) which are used as
flavo(u)r enhancers (used to increase palatability) (1 mark).
3. Name an animal by-product that can be produced by spray drying and indicate one
major advantage and one major drawback of this process.
1 for any of: Example: Blood, (protein) digests, albumin, milk
1 for: Major advantage: ‘gentle’ process which does not damage/ denature the product
very much. 1 for: Major disadvantage: expensive, costly etc.
SECTION B (continued)
4. Describe what is meant by “ingredient splitting” as it applies to pet-food labelling.
3 marks for clear explanation.
This refers to the use of several ingredients which belong to the same general category
rather than a single one, so as to avoid it appearing as the greatest component of the
diet when listed on the label (okay if they use e.g. cereal sources to illustrate this as
long as principle is clear)
5. Clearly distinguish between the terms “contaminant “and “adulterant” as applied
to pet food composition and give one example of each.
1 for: A contaminant is a component present naturally in a feed (or feed ingredient)
Examples (1/2): (heavy) metals, mycotoxins, pesticides etc.
1 for: An adulterant is some component added to a feed (or feed ingredient)
deliberately* in order to give an appearance of enhanced quality.
Examples (1/2): Melamine
6. Name a synthetic antioxidant and indicate an advantage and disadvantage of
incorporating it in foods designed for pets. 1 for any of: ethoxyquin, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene
1 for either of: Advantage: very effective, cheap
1 for: Disadvantage: not well accepted by pet food buyers
SECTION C (Total = 15 marks)
Answer 3 of the 4 questions in this section (5 marks each)
1. Indicate 5 clearly distinct challenges associated with pet food production.
Any 5 = 1 mark; if more than 5 given, best 5 was marked
Lost marks if not specific
Cost of ingredients
Sourcing of ingredients
Quality of ingredients
Consistency of product
Appeal to customer (= purchaser)
Dealing with a competitive market
Following AAFCO (and other) guidelines
2. Outline the pros and cons of using meat meals versus fresh meat sources as
ingredients in manufacturing pet foods.
Meat Meals Meat
Pros. 1/2 for any of, up to 2 max: Pros. 1 for:
1. Decreased pathogen incidence 1. Label can say ‘meat’
2. Increased shelf-life (or stability)