Study Guides (380,000)
CA (150,000)
U of G (8,000)
ANSC (100)

ANSC 2340 Study Guide - Final Guide: Broiler, Plymouth Rock Chicken, Rhode Island Red

Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 2340
Linda Hunter
Study Guide

of 6
Ducks: major industry in Asia, but not in North America
Turkeys: more than half the turkeys are found in northern America
Geese and Guinea Fowl : major industry in Asia, North America has lowest level of production
United States (%47) is the greatest consumer of both broiler meat and turkey, following by
Egg Production
60,678, 391 tonnes of chicken eggs are commercially produced world-wide per year
4,907,418 tonnes of eggs from other birds are commercially produced
Chicken Production by Province: Ontario being the biggest, then Quebec
- In Ontario 1,260 broiler chicken farms, employs over 5, 000
Poultry Processing
Eggs: eggs are collected and graded at a grading station, where they are packaged and
distributed (94 in Ontario)
Poultry: are slaughtered at both provincially and federally inspected plants
- 21 federally inspected plants
- 49 provincially inspected plants
Quota System
Quota is a license granted by the Chicken Farmers of Ontario
CFO does not buy/sell or issue new quota
Instead, grants licenses which recognize ownership transfers between buyers and sellers
of quota
All chickens produced and marketed in Ontario must be done on a quota basis
The exception is chicken raised on a private farm for a family’s personal consumption
The price of quota in March, 2006 was $57-58 per unit
Common Egg Laying Breeds
single comb white leghorn
single comb rhode island red
barred Plymouth rock
Alternative Livestock & Mink
Facilities and Equipment
Perimeter fence : prevents escapes and minimizes : revenue loss, disease from wildlife, cross
breeding with wild mink
Enhanced farm bio security and security: minimize contact with dogs, cats and wildlife
Mink Sheds: long open sided, natural ventilation, 2 to 8 rows of pens, adequate natural light
important for bringing mink into breeding season and for natural furring cycle
Breeding/ Whelping Pens
raise kits until weaning/splitting of litters
12 to 15’ high, 24’ long and 14-18’ wide
Furring/Growing/Pelting Pens
litters spilt and kits transferred to furring pens
Feed : 80-90% of diet is meat or dairy products, 10-20% is cereal based
Feeding Systems:
1) dry feed- option for small farms
2) wet feed- ont mink farms
a. on farm processing (make food on farm)
b. ready mix (sent to farm ready to feed)
Feeding: feed is pumped from feeder to wire on tops of pens and nest boxes
Watering Systems: automatic: waterline and nipples
Manual: water cups and hose
Manure Management
accumulates on the ground underneath the pens
removed from April to nov and frozen in the winter
Year on a Mink Farm
breading is first 3 weeks of march, 4-5:1 male
goal is to breed 2 to 3 times, induced ovulation, gestation is 51 days
mid April: prepare for whelping season
late April, kits born in nest box 5-6 kids per litter, kits are readily fostered to other females
late may : being feeding kits solid feed on top of nest
June: kits weaned 6 to 8 weeks female is take from kits
July : vaccination
August: spate kits into furring pens, shed summer coat
Deer, Elk, Bison, Wild Boar
• Meat
• Velvet Antler & Hard Antler (deer & elk)
• Trophy Hunting in Preserves (white tailed deer, red deer, elk, wild boar)
Not permitted in Ontario
Export markets to Quebec & some US states
• Local niche value-added markets success stories!
• Nutritional qualities
• North American species (bison, elk, deer) – consumer recognition
• National producer organizations (Canadian Cervid Alliance, Canadian Bison Association BUT
NOT wild boar)
• Provincially inspected abattoirs can slaughter/process
~ 49 bison plants
~ 60 deer & elk plants
• Lack substantive markets
Supply driven vs. market driven
Current meat supplies are insufficient to support supermarket distribution (chicken &
egg syndrome re supply & demand)
Inadequate marketing
Where can consumers find it
Lack of consumers awareness with products & preparation
Need for more convenient formats
Fragmented industry infrastructure
lack consistent supply & quality
lack distribution channels
no federal slaughter/processing in Ontario
Most lack proper animal handling facilities
no provincial producer organizations for deer, elk, wild boar
Game Birds (pheasants, partridge & quail)
• CFIA licenses hatcheries
• Ministry of Natural Resources licenses issued June 2008
168 licenses “To Keep Game Birds in Captivity”. Can sell:
• Eggs
• Chicks
• Flight conditioned birds for hunting
• Meat birds
• Lack marketing infrastructure
producer must market
• Ontario Game Bird Association no longer active
Camelids (Alpaca & Llama)
Breeding stock
• 5-10 lbs/animal/yr
prime blanket fleece only 3-4 lbs.
Livestock guard animals for sheep flocks
Alpaca - Strengths
• Strong, light weight, fine & warm fleece
• Marketing raw fleece/fibre via producer cooperatives
Alpaca Fibre Cooperative of Ontario
Alpaca Fibre Coop of North America
Small custom fibre mills process fibre into:
quality yarn:
• sell to niche/artisan/cottage industry (hand spinners/weavers/knitters)
value-added products