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ANTH 1120
Dan Meegan

Psychology *1010 Midterm Preparation  Chapter 1­1: Story of Psychology • Wilhem Wundt’s experiment (1879, Germany) defined the start of scientific psychology. o Dealt with lag between people hearing a ball hit the floor and pressing the teleraph key. o Added 2 key elements: 1. Careful mesasured observations 2. Expirments • Two early stages: o Structuralism: used introspection to define minds makeup- exposed the subject to stimuli and asked to report sensations (Titchener) o Functionalism: focused on how mental process helps us to adapt • Introspection (looking inward)- reporting elements of their experiences as they observed. o Unreliable since it required smart, verbal people and results would vary William James: ­ Asked why does something function • He developed functionalism, in part as a response to Titchener’s structuralism  • James studied human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and questions such as  what function may they serve?  1­2: Development of Psychological Science • Early Pyschology defined as: “the science of mental life” – until 1920’s • B.F. Skinner and John. B. Watson dismissed introspection and redefined as “the  scientific study of observable behavior”  • Freudian psychology of 1960’s changed the definition again and examined  unconscious thought process.  •  Cognitive revolution:  focus on how our mind processes and retains info.  o new ways to understand ourselves and treat disorders/depression  • Todays definition due to Cognitive Revolution : “science of beavior and mental  processes.”  • Behavior: anything an organism does (smiles) • Mental Processes­ internal (thoughts)  1­3­ Psychology’s Biggest Question: Nature vs. Nurture  • Plato­ theorized we inherit character/intelligence and certain ideas are inborn • Aristotle­ theorized nothing in the mind doesn’t come from external observations o John Locke  ▯Team Plato o René Descartes & Darwin  ▯Team Aristotle  •  Darwin’s Natural Selection:  nature selects traits that best enable and organism to  survive and reproduce in natural environment.  Contemporary science believes psychological events often stem from the  interaction rather than separation of nature­nurture 1­4­ Psychology’s 3 Main Levels of Analysis  Biological Approach – brain mechanisms ­ hormones ­ natural selection Psychological Approach – learned fears ­ emotional response ­ cognitive process Socio­Cultural – presence of others  ­ cultural expectatins ­ peer influence  Combining these 3 approaches we get ‘BioPyschoSocial’ approach and a more complete  idea than any one pespective can cover.  Module 2­ The Need for Psychological Science  Freudian Theory – the mind works on 2 levels:  1. unconscious  2. conscious Reasons why we can’t rely on intuition/common sense • Hindsight bias (‘’ I knew it all along”)  o When 2 opposite findings both seem like common sense there’s a problem o Common sense better describes what has happened over what will o People cant forsee upcoming results  • Overconfidence o Tendency to think more than we do  o Perceiving social behavior based on what we think we know over what we  actually know • Perceiving Order in Random Events o Examining patterns and creating theories o Sequences often don’t look random, resulting in over interpretation  o the outcome of one result gives no clue of the outcome of the next  These 3 problems often lead us to overestimate our intuition What are the steps of the scientific method? • Observation • “Students who are anxious about statistics are those who typically procrastinate on their assignments” • Hypotheses • Testable predictions derived from observations and/or implied by a theory • Question that can be found true or false • E.g., Do students who report being anxious about statistics procrastinate more on their assignment? • Operational definition: Definition of how a variable is conceptualized and shows how it was measured • For example: • How can we measure statistics anxiety? • How we measure procrastination? • Reflects psychology’s focus on (obsession with) the quantification of mental processes and behaviour • Data collection and analyses • Research method • If our statistical analyses lead us to conclude that the data supports our hypothesis, then our theory is confirmed • If we conclude that the data do not support our hypothesis, our theory is repudiated • Revise hypotheses or reject them • Theory: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviours or events. • Support is not proof! • Results from this study prove that anxiety about statistics is associated with increased procrastination on assignments. • Last step is replication • Replicating research means trying it again using the same operational Module 4: Neural & Hormonal Systems Neurons  • Basic building 
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