ANTH 1150 Study Guide - Final Guide: Onomatopoeia, Germanic Languages, Discourse Analysis

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
University of Guelph
ANTH 1150
Lecture 1
imperialism - people from the western world were traveling to the nonwestern world in order to administer the
territories that they have conquered; in order to covert people there into their dominant religion - Christianity and to
describe those populations to the people back at home
in 1900 the most important imperial powers were Britain and france
modern anthropology developed during this period in the context of west colonizing the rest
during this period the west knew much about non west more than ever before -> anthropologists were among the
professionals that were creating and communicating this knowledge to the west; a lot of info also came from
nonacademics (ie soldiers)
there were 3 kids of differences that both the public and the anthropologists used to understand the nonwest
1. linguistic diff btw west and nonwest - people were curious about how people outside of the familiar world speak
2. social cultural anthro - to explain cultural diff
3. physical and racial description - race is not scientific concept but it was considered to be a scientific concept
ambivalent in 19th century
4. material - what have these people produced -> studied by archeologists
people were interested in archeology to discover the great civilizations of the past that have disappeared
4 subdisciplines of anthropology have developed out of curiosity
there were prejudices at play - looked at which culture, which lang or race is developed and which is degenerative
(lost its greatness)
it was considered that west was the most advanced -> white people, west technology and language
even scientists believed that western culture was the most advanced
the conclusion was that there were primitive races and cultures and others were more advanced -> hunter gatherers
barbarians - intermediate civilizations btw uncivilized and civilized
civilized - the most advanced; believed that for civilization you need agriculture; only those who had agriculture were
considered to be truly civilized; some believed that only those who can write are civilized
ethnocentrism - thinking that own culture, language and physical type is superior; seeing everything from the
perspective of own people
a lot of anthropologists have contributed to ethnocentrism but other anthropologists were fighting it
from late 19th century on modern anthropologists were critical of ethnocentrism, some were unable to escape it but
they were trying
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know the names - will be on exam
malinowsky thought that every culture is as good as any other culture and if there are diff is bc they fill their own
niche - special environment
boas - said that no culture is inferior to any other; he was critical of racism but he wasn’t free of it; a culture that is
higher is the one that recognizes that we are not superior
Margaret mead - student of boas; believed that each culture has its own system of customs that you need to uncover;
talked about diff psy types but none than any other; antiracist bc said that shouldn’t evaluate people in your terms but
in their terms
lang is one way of signifying -> to signify is to make sense
language is a system for making sense
pictures are also one way to make sense; signs are also a way of making sense (if you see a sign it will make you stop)
there are other systems for making sense and all of them have3 functions - communication; identity formation and
language and other signifying systems make sense and they function to communicate
have a certain number of actors in communication - have speaker (also known as sender; can call an artist a sender -
> if send a msg than you are sender); receiver; the channel through msg is sent could be spoken language or it could
be written; or could be written electronically or spoken (radio); another channel - body language; illness symptoms
are also communication system
medium - the channel
when have tv your culture will change regardless of whats on tv; regardless of the content, just bc that channel exists
it will make huge changes in the world
he coined the term global village - through tv people were able to see instantly what was going on in other parts of the
every channel creates diff kind of experience and addition of new channel changes the world
a new way of communication means a new way of organizing people regardless of whats on it
differentiation is one of the aspects of signifying systems
one function of language is identity formation
the differences may or may not exist but the language crystalizes the diff
sometimes we form the identity for other people and then they learn it from us and accept that identity
the way you speak helps to create identity; people are differentiated based on the languages that they speak; language
has differentiating function
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positive and negative don’t mean good and bad
positive - not comparing anything; positive content for Canadian could be - you are a Canadian if you love hockey;
can define a German person by them speaking german
negative - makes comparison with others; stressing the difference; what we are not; Canadians are more polite than
americans; neg definition of dutch - Germanic language which is not german (saying that your language is not like
others, comparing it to others)
so defining Canadians as loving hockey is positive and defining Canadians as more polite than Americans is negative
difference can create conflict btw the groups
when groups compete for the same resources they can come into conflict
diff human groups, like diff animal groups, can compete for the same resources -> they adopt themselves to diff
niches; in humans it leads to development of diff languages and diff cultures (diff behaviours)
other special would develop into diff species but humans don’t develop into diff species but become very varied in
terms of diff that we have
prejudice may accompany the diff but prejudice is not caused by the diff (there are many diff btw the people and they
don’t cause prejudice - some people have bigger ears than others); its not the case that diff creates hostility, it depends
on the context in which these diff are created and understood
physical types are associated with prejudice but not all physical types; race is a concept that is involved
we call race a folk notion
green terms - will not be tested on definition but will be tested about something involving that word
members of the society participate in the construction of race
races are not distinct genetically in terms of genetic pools; race is not genetic classification; people of certain race may
have some genetic characteristics in common but there is no gene for black or white people
there are more genetic traits that are shared btw the people across races than within
its socially and linguistically conditioned how we classify people
differences in appearance are given by nature but its people who turn them into racial classification
its correct to say that Obama is black but its not correct to say that he is white even though he is half and half
what black means in our language is governed by one drop rule -> if youre a little black than youre black
if the person is a little not white than they are not at all white
racial classifications are not given by nature; if it was by nature Obama would be just as white as black -> these
classifications are made through language and they are made in the context of power relations
black and white race - concepts that were invented before slavery in Americas
sharespere has characters that are dark skinned; but there is no mention of black race; doesn’t mean that there was
race called black at that time, some people were prejudiced against people who dark skinned
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