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Final

Kottak Final Notes.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 1150
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Hank Davis

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Kottak: Chapter 1 Anthropology: Comparative science examining all societies, ancient and modern, simple and complex. (Holistic science) Human Adaptability: Adaptation: refers to the process by which organisms cope (through environmental forces/stresses) caused by climate and topographic or terrains, A.K.A ‗landforms‖.  4 ways for a human to adapt (1 cultural and 3 biological): 1. Technological: cultural form of adaptation (ex. pressurized airplane cabins with oxygen masks). 2. Genetic adaptation (occurring over generations): biological form of adaptation (ex. larger ―barrel chest‖ of native highlanders – more lung capacity). 3. Long-term Physiological Adaptation (occurs during growth & development of individual): biological form of adaptation (ex. more efficient respiratory systems to extract oxygen from ―thin air‖. 4. Short-term Physiological Adaptation (occurs spontaneously in response to an immediate change in environment): biological form of adaptation (increased heat rate, hyperventilation). General Anthropology: Has 4 main sub disciplines known as ―four-field‖. The four-fields are: sociocultural (cultural), archaeological, biological and linguistic anthropology  Early American anthropologists were greatly concerned with native American culture and history  Pondered questions such as; where did Native Americans come from? How many waves of migration brought them here? What are the linguistic, cultural and biological links among Native Americans themselves and their links with Asia.  Each of the subdisciplins influence each other as Anthropologists begin to talk more to one another. Cultural Forces Shape Human Biology:  Culture is huge in how individuals grow and develop (ex. Northern girls are encouraged to pursue and do well in competition, involving figure skating, gymnastiques, track & field, swimming, diving, etc.) ―North America‖  Culture in other places such as Brazil promote more team based sports than America (due to their culture beliefs and traditions).  The culture in which you grow up in has a huge influence on who you will become. Cultural Anthropology:  Study of human society & culture, which describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social & cultural similarities/differences (through ethnography & ethnology).  Ethnography: Provides an account of a particular community, society or culture. The Ethnographer gathers data that he/she organizes, describes, and analyzes which is found in the form of a book, article or film. They generally live in smaller communities studying local behaviours & customs.  Ethnology: Examines, interprets, analyzes & compares the results of the ethnography – data gathered from different societies. Ethnography Ethnology  Requires field work to collect  Uses data collected by a series of data; often descriptive and is researchers; usually synthetic, generally group/community comparative & cross-cultural. specific. Archaeological Anthropology: ―Archaeology‖ reconstructs, describes and interprets human behaviour & cultural patterns through material remains.  Ancient remains help answer a number of questions about ancient economies & cultures. (ex. How did they get their food? Agriculture, hunting, domestication etc.).  Some Archaeology suggests there was trade when they found pottery that wasn‘t naturally from the site they were working on. (Modern style trade?)  Ecology: study of interactions among living things in an environment.  Paleoecology: studies ancient ecosystems  Historically all towns had their own purpose (ex. burial sites, ceremonies, farming communities, etc.). Biological or Physical Anthropology:  5 special interests... 1. Human evolution as reviled by the fossil record. 2. Human genetics. 3. Human growth/development. 4. Human biological plasticity (bodies ability to change). 5. Biology, evolution, behaviour and social life of apes and other non human primates. Tools Provide Understanding, Habits, Customs and Life styles:  Biological anthropology also looks at the affect of the environment on the individual.  Parents can greatly influence growth/development (ex. if you have taller genes but are malnourished as a child, you will shorter). Linguistic Anthropology:  We aren‘t sure when language first came to be but we do know that complex languages have been around for thousands of years.  They study language in it‘s social and cultural context across space and over time. Sociolinguistics: looks at relationships between social & linguistic variation.  No matter where you go, people always speak slightly differently. Anthropology & Other Academic Field’s:  Anthropology has a link with a lot of other disciplines because not only is it a humanity but also a science.  Provides us with scientific basis for study Applied Anthropology:  There are two dimensions to this (also can be considered a 5 field)... 1. Academic or general anthropology 2. Practicing or applied anthropology Key terms found on page 16** Chapter 2: Culture “culture… is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (Tylor 1871/1958, p.1). Tylor’s definition focuses on attributes that people acquire not through biological inheritance but by growing up in a particular society in which they are exposed to a specific cultural tradition. Enculturation is the process by which a child learns his or her culture What is culture? Culture is learned Cultural learning depends on the uniquely developed human capacity to use symbols, signs that have no necessary or natural connection to the things they stand for or signify Cultures have been characterized as sets of “control mechanisms- plans, recipes, rules, and instructions, what computer engineers call programs for the governing of behavior” - These programs are absorbed by people through enculturation in particular traditions - People gradually internalize a previously established system of meanings and symbols, which helps guide their behavior and perceptions throughout their lives - Sometimes culture is taught (eg. Telling children to say thank-you) - Culture is transmitted through observation o Children pay attention to the things that go on around them o Modify their behavior not just because people tell them to, but also as a result of their observations and growing awareness of what culture considers right and wrong - Culture is absorbed unconsciously Culture is symbolic Symbolic thought is unique and crucial to humans and to cultural learning Symbol = verbal or non-verbal within a particular language or culture that comes to stand for something else Culture originated when our ancestors acquired the ability to use symbols to originate and bestow meaning on a thing or event and correspondingly grasp and appreciate such meanings There need be no obvious, natural or necessary connection between the symbol and what is symbolizes All humans posses the abilities on which culture rests- the abilities to learn, to think symbolically, to manipulate language, and to use tools and other cultural products in organizing their lives and coping with their environments Every contemporary human population has the ability to use symbols and thus to create and maintain culture Culture is shared Culture is an attribute not of individuals per se but of individuals as members of groups Culture is transmitted in society - Learn by observing, listening, talking and interacting with many other people - Shared beliefs, values, memories and expectations link people who grow up in the same culture - Enculturation unifies people bby providing us with common experiences Culture and nature Culture takes the natural biological urges we share with other animals and teaches us how to express them in particular ways People have to eat, but culture teaches us what, when and how Cultural habits, perceptions and inventions mold “human nature” into many forms Our culture and cultural changes affect how we perceive nature, human nature and “the natural,” - Prevent and cure diseases - Does not protect us from natural threats (hurricanes, floods, earthquakes) Culture is all-encompassing Culture includes much more than refinement, good taste, sophistication, education and appreciation of the fine arts - All people are cultured - Culture affects people every day, particularly children during enculturation Culture, as defined anthropologically encompasses features that are sometimes regarded as trivial or unworthy of serious study such as those of “popular” culture Culture is integrated Cultures are not haphazard collections of customs and beliefs Cultures are integrated, patterned systems Attitudes and behaviours regarding marriage, family and children have changed Cultures are integrated not simply by their dominant economic activities and related social patterns but also by sets of values, ideas, symbols and judgments Culture trains their individuals to share certain personality traits - Core values: integrate each culture and helps distinguish it from others o Eg work ethic and individualism Culture is instrumental, adaptive, and maladaptive Culture is the main reason for human adaptability and success Other animals rely on biological means of adaptation (eg. Fur to keep them warm) Humans adapt biologically (eg. Shivering when we get cold) We hunt cold-adapted animals and use their fur coats as our own People use culture instrumentally that is to fulfill their basic biological needs for food, drink, shelter, comfort and reproduction People use culture to fulfill psychological and emotional needs such as friendship, companionship, approval and being sexually desired People seek informal support (people who care about them) Formal support from associations and institutions Individuals cultivate ties with others on the basis of common experiences, political interests, aesthetic sensibilities, or personal attraction Cultural traits may be called adaptive if they help individuals cope with environmental stress - Such traits can also be maladaptive (may threaten a group’s continued existence) Culture’s evolutionary basis Similarities between humans and apes, our closest relatives, are evident in anatomy, brain structure, genetics, and biochemistry Most closely related to us are the African great apes: chimpanzees and gorillas We refer to members of this family as hominids Hominids is used for the group that leads to humans but not to chimps and gorillas and that encompasses all the human species that ever have existed - Humans usually give birth to a single offspring rather than a litter, receiving more parental attention, that one infant has enhanced learning opportunities - Humans have developed considerably the primate tendency to be social animals, living and interacting regularly with other members of their species What we share with other primates There is a substantial gap between primate society (organized life in groups) and fully developed human culture which is based on symbolic thought Humans are not the only animals that make tools with a specific purpose in mind Chimps living in the tai forest of ivory coast make and use stone tools to break open hard, golfball sized nuts - nut cracking is a learned skill, with mothers showing their young how to do it Like tool making, hunting once was cited as a distinctive human activity not shared with the apes Primate research shows that other primates, especially chimpanzees, are habitual hunters How we differ from other primates Although chimps often share meat from a hunt, apes and monkey, except for nursing infants, tend to feed themselves individually Until recently, all humans were hunter-gatherers who lived in small social groups called bands - men and women bring resources back to the camp and share them - everyone shares meat from a large animal - nourished and protected by the younger members, elders live past reproductive age and are respected for knowledge and experience - humans are among the most co-operative in food quest and social activities - the amount of info stored in a human band is far greater than that in any other primate group When baboons and chimps mate, the female goes into estrus, during which the vaginal area swells and reddens and receptive females form temporary bonds with and mate with the males Human pair bonds for mating are more exclusive and more durable that those of chimps - marriages give mating a reliable basis and grants to each spouse special though not always exclusive, sexual rights to each other - marriage creates another major contrast between humans and nonhuman primates; exogamy and kinship systems - primates tend to disperse during adolescence - humans maintain lifelong ties with sons and daughters Universality, generality, and particularity “The psychic unity of man”, means that although individuals differ in their emotional and intellectual tendencies and capacities, all human populations have equivalent capacities for culture Regardless of their genes or their physical appearance, people can learn any cultural tradition Certain biological, psychological, social and cultural features are universal found in every culture - others are merely generalities, common to several but not all human groups - still other traits are particularities, unique to certain cultural traditions Universals and generalities Biologically based universals include: - long period of infant dependency - year round (rather than seasonal) sexuality - complex brain that enables us to use symbols, languages, and tools Among the social universals is life in groups and in some kind of family Generalities occur in certain times and places but not in all cultures One cultural generality that is present in many but not all societies is the nuclear family - Americans ethnocentrically view the nuclear family as a proper and “natural” group, it is not universal Societies can share the same beliefs and customs because of borrowing or through (cultural) inheritance from a common cultural ancestor - Speaking English is a generality shared by North Americans and Austrailians because both countries had English settlers - More recently, English has spread through diffusion (cultural borrowing) to many other countries, as it has become the world’s foremost language for business and travel Particularity: Patterns of Culture A cultural particularity is a trait or feature of culture that is not generalized or widespread; rather it is confined to a single place, culture, or society. Traits that are useful, that have the capacity to please large audiences, and that don’t clash with the cultural values of potential adopters are more likely to be borrowed than others are Many cultural traits are shared as cultural universals and as a result of independent invention - Facing similar problems, people in difference places have come up with similar solutions - Similar cultural causes have produced similar cultural results * Cultures are integrated and patterned differently and display tremendous variation and diversity * - When cultural traits are borrowed, they are modified to fit the culture that adopts them Consider universal life-cycle events, such as birth, puberty, marriage, parenthood, and death that many cultures observe and celebrate - The occasions may be the same, and universal but the patterns of ceremonial observance may be dramatically different - Cultures vary in which events merit special celebration (eg. North American big, expensive weddings) Cultures vary tremendously in their beliefs, practices, integration and patterning By focusing on, and trying to explain alternative customs, anthropology forces us to reappraise our familiar ways of thinking In a world full of cultural diversity, contemporary American culture is just one cultural variant, more powerful perhaps, but no more natural than the others Culture and the Individual: Agency and Practice The system can refer to various concepts, including culture, society, social relations, or social structure Individual human beings always make up, or constitute, the system - Humans are also constrained to some extent by its rules and by the actions of other individuals - Cultural rules provide guidance about what to do and how to do it, but people don’t always do what the rules say - People use their culture actively and creatively Cultures are dynamic and constantly changing People learn, interpret, and manipulate the same rule in different ways- or they emphasize different rules that better suit their interests Culture is contested: different groups in society struggle with one another over whole ideas, values, goals and beliefs Even common symbols may have different meanings to different individuals and groups in the same culture Even when they agree about what should be done, people don’t always do as their culture directs or as other people expect Many rules are violated and some very often (speeding) The ideal culture consists of what people say they should do and what they say they do Real culture refers to their actual behavior as observed by anthropologists Culture is both public, and individual, both in the world and in people’s minds - Interested in public and collective, but also how individual’s think, feel, and act - The individual and culture are linked because human social life is a process in which individuals internalize the meanings of public messages - Alone, and in groups, people influence culture by converting their private understandings into public expressions Culture has been seen as social glue, transmitted across the generations, binding people through their common past, rather than as something being continually created and reworked in the present Agency refers to the actions that the individuals take, both alone and in groups, in forming and transforming cultural ID Practice theory recognizes that individuals within a society or culture have diverse motives and intentions and different degrees of power and influence - Such contrasts may be associated with gender, age, ethnicity, class and other social variable\ - Focuses on how such varied individuals- through their ordinary and extraordinary actions and practices- manage to influence, create, and transform the world they live in - Recognizes a reciprocal relation between culture and the individual - The system shapes how individuals experience and respond to external events, but also play an active role in how society functions and changes, - Recognizes both constraints and the flexibility and changeability of cultures and social systems Popular, Civic, and Public Culture Systems, in which we participate as individuals are not merely local or regional; they have national and international scope - Contemporary cultures have its own national cultural traditions, its own media and popular culture; its own civic culture consisting of laws, institutions, and associations and its own way of doing things in public Today’s consumption patterns both reflect and fuel popular culture , supplying widely shared images, information, narratives, products, events, and celebrations that have meaning for many or most people within the same national culture (eg. North American thanksgiving, Halloween and Christmas) Civic culture includes its citizens’ compliance with the legal system, participation in formal elections and membership in voluntary and faith-based organizations - Public culture generally accepted social behaviours, dress codes, speech and other forms of expression that citizens enact in public spaces, including bars, parks, malls, cemeteries Levels of Culture National culture- embodies those beliefs, learned behaviours, patterns, values and intuitions that are shared by citizens of the same nation International culture- extends beyond and across national boundaries Because culture is transmitted through learning rather than genetically, cultural traits can be spread through borrowing or diffusion from one group to another Because of diffusion, migration, colonialism, and globalization, many cultural traits and patterns have acquired international scope Individuals, families, communities, regions, classes and other groups within a culture have different learning experiences as well as shared ones Subcultures – are different symbol based patterns and traditions associated with particular groups in the same complex society (eg. US & Canada) - French speaking Canadians - Many anthropologists refrain from using the term subculture, because it may be offensive (sub meaning below) - Subcultures many be perceived as inferior Nations may contain many different culturally defined groups Various groups may strive to promote the correctness and value of their own practices, values and beliefs in comparison with those of other groups or the nation as a whole Ethnocentrism, Cultural Relativism, and Human Rights Ethnocentrism – tendency to view one’s own culture as superior and to apply one’s own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other cultures Opposing ethnocentrism, is cultural relativism the viewpoint that behvaiour in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another - At its extreme cultural relativism argues there is no superior culture - It’s a methodological position, not a moral one - “to understand another culture fully, you must try to see how the people in that culture see things, what motivates them-what are they thinking- when they do those things?” (pg. 32) - One can only understand the motivations for the practice by looking at the situation from the point of view of those who engage in it Human rights- invokes a realm of justice and morality beyond and superior to the laws and customs of particular countries, cultures, and religions. - Includes: right to speak, to hold religious beliefs without persecutions, and not to be murdered, injured or enslaved or imprisoned without charge - Such rights are seen as inalienable (nations cannot abridge or terminate them) Unlike human rights, cultural rights are vested not in the individuals but in groups, such as religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies - Culture rights include: a groups ability to preserve its culture, to raise its children in the way of its forebears to continue its language and not to be deprived of its economic base by nation in which it is located Intellectual property rights (IPR) has arisen in an attempt to conserve each society’s cultural base- its core beliefs, knowledge, and practices - Much traditional cultural knowledge has commercial value (eg traditional medical knowledge and technique) Anthropologists respect human diversity - Most ethnographers try to be objective, accurate and sensitive in the accounts of other cultures Mechanisms of Cultural Change How and why do cultures change? - Diffusion or borrowing of traits between cultures - such exchange of information and products has gone on throughout human history because cultures never been truly isolated - contrast between neighbouring groups has always existed and has extended over vast areas - diffusion is direct when two cultures trade with, intermarry among, or wage war on one another - diffusion is forced when one culture subjugates another and imposes its customs on the dominated group - diffusion is indirect when items or traits move from group A to group C via group without any firsthand contact between A and C A is ongoing exchange of cultural features that results when groups have continuous firsthand contact - cultures of either or both groups may be changed by this contact Independent invention- process by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems. - Faced with comparable problems and challenges, people in different societies have innovated and changed in similar ways, which is one reason cultural generalities exist Globalization Globalization encompasses a series of process that work transnationally to promote change in a world in which nations and people are increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent. - Promoting globalization are economic and political forces, along with modern systems of transportation and communication - New economic unions have been created through the World Trade Organization, (WTO), the International MOetary Fund (IMF) and the European Union (EU) - The media (internet) play a key role in globalization, long distance communication is faster than ever and covers most of the globe - The effects of globalization are broad and not always welcome - Local people must cope increasingly with forces generated by progressively larger systems- region, nation, and world - Tourism is worlds # 1 industry - Media promotes the idea work should be for cash, rather than subsistence - Indigenous peoples have devised various strategies to deal with threats to their autonomy, identity and livelihood - New forms of cultural expression and political mobilization, including the rights movements are emerging from the interplay of local, region, national and internation cultural forces - Illustrating political movilization against globalization are regular protests at the meetings of the main agencies concerned with international trade Kottak Chapter 3: Doing Anthropology:  Most people only think of the biological or the archaeological anthropologists rather than the social or cultural is because their work is more interesting. Research Methods:  Sociologists came to rely on using questionnaires to get the information they require. They use statistical techniques to discover more about culture & the social world. Ethnography – Anthropologies Distinctive Strategy:  They go right to the people, right to the site where their research takes place so that they can get direct information (primary research). Ethnographer Techniques: 1. First hand observation of behaviour, including participation. 2. Conversations with varying formalities (ex. chit chat and gossip with the locals). This is through prolonged interviews with the people they are studying. 3. The genealogical method. 4. Detailed work with key consultants/informants about particular areas of community life. 5. In-depth interviewing sessions, often leading to discovery of the people‘s history. 6. Discovery of local/native beliefs & perceptions in which can be compared with the ethnographers own observations & conclusions. 7. Problem oriented research (problems arising in the community/prolonged problems). 8. Team research: coordinated research by multiple ethnographers. 9. Longitudinal Research: the continuous long term study of an area r site. 10. Multi sited research that studies the various sites & systems in which people participate every day. Observation & Participant Observation:  Ethnographers tend to study all aspects of native lives from celebrations to simply how they eat. It is helpful if the ethnographer goes back for more than a year in a row as they may have missed something the first visits. Conversation, Interviewing & Interview Schedules:  We start off by learning the names of objects around us and then we gradually build more language.  Not only did they do basic questionnaires or surveys but they also would get more in depth by going house to house so they could meet all the villagers. Then they would pick a select few with good & useful information to learn from as more questions arise. The Genealogical Method:  They trace your genealogical history (where you come from) to try and understand more about you & where your allegiance lies. Key Cultural Constraints:  They find people who seem to have a lot of knowledge of their peoples history or certain other people who have talents such as music, singing, writing, etc. Local Benefits, Perceptions & the Ethnographer:  Harder for people to objectively explain themselves which is the emic strategy. That is why anthropologists also use the emit strategy as it gives them a glimpse from the outside looking in. The Evolution of Ethnography:  (1884 – 19420 Malinowski: generally regarded as the founder of ethnography. The goal of ethnography was to go right into an alien world and learn everything you could about those people.  Dialogic Ethnography has become the most popular as it gives the anthropologists to reflect & add their own thoughts & opinions. Problem Oriented Ethnography:  They now tend to go into the field with a single problem in mind & research all they can about that problem (it is limited). Longitudinal Studies, Team Research & Multi Sited Ethnography:  Longitudinal Studies: long-term studies of a group of people over a wide range of land.  Team Research: is almost always in effect if there is any form of longitudinal studies.  Multi Sited: the study of a group of people throughout time and different places. Essentially; ethnographers study people in motion... Survey Research:  A survey is doing a study of a larger sample group such as a country. Ethnographers tend to get more personal with the individual rather than the respondant. Doing Anthropology Right & Wrong – Ethical Issues:  There are certain standards that one must follow while in the field; 1. Must have local colleagues involved in the research. 2. Have a ―true‖ collaborative relationship with your local colleagues. 3. Includes colleagues in dissemination, this includes all publications or uses of the research. 4. Ensure you ―give something back‖ to the community such as funding to you local colleagues for future research studies. The Code of Ethics:  List of ethics all anthropologists of the AAA should abide by. Essentially this prevents them from doing any harm to the people in which they are studying.  They need to make sure everyone involved in the study is fully aware of everything that is going on within the study. The anthropologists also must be aware of any relations between themselves and where they are working. Anthropologists & Terrorism:  Anthropologists are under strict orders to try & get to the root of terrorism and try to explain its more recent uprising.  Armies around the world are trying to use anthropological information for their war efforts but that goes against the AAA code of ethics. Chapter Four Language & Communication Anthropologist study language in its social and cultural context -they reconstruct ancient languages by comparing descendants -study linguistic differences to discover the varied worldviews and patterns of thought in cultures Sociolinguistics examine: dialects and styles in one language to show how speech reflects social differences -they also explore the role of language in colonization and globalization Primates: monkeys and apes Call Systems: natural communication systems of other primates -consists of a limited number of sounds (calls) that are produced only when particular environmental stimuli are present -are automatic and can't be combined Cultural Transmission of a communication system through learning is a fundamental attribute of language -transmission through language Productivity: using the rules of their language to produce entirely new expressions that are comprehensible to other speakers Displacement: humans can talk about things that aren't present -human conversations are not limited by place and therefore we can discuss the future and past, etc. -the gene FOXP2 helps explain why humans can speak and chimps can't Communication: includes language, but language isn't the only way we can communicate -body language communicates information Kinesics- the study of communication through body movements -pays attention not only to what is being said but how it is said. Descriptive linguistics: Study of a spoken language -involves several areas of analysis: -Phonology: study of speech sounds, considers which sounds are present and meaningful in a given language -Morphology: studies the forms in which sounds combine to form morphemes (words and their meaningful parts) -Lexicon: a dictionary containing all a languages morphemes and their meanings -Syntax: the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences Phoneme: A sound contrast that makes a difference and differentiates meaning -find phonemes by comparing minimal pairs Minimal Pairs: Words that resemble each other in all but one sound. -have different meanings but they differ in just one sound ex) pit/bit Phonetics is the study of speech sounds in general -what people actually say in various languages -differences in vowel pronunciation Phonemics: Studies only the significant sound contrasts (phonemes) in a given language. -Noam Chomsky argued that the brain has a limited set of rules for organizing language and therefore all languages have a common structural basis (and have a universal grammar) -In contrast is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis -belief that different languages produce different ways of thinking. Focal Vocabulary: Specialized set of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups -vocabulary is the area of a language that changes the most rapidly -Language, culture and thought are interrelated -> opposite of the S-W hypothesis as it would be more accurate to say that changes in culture produces changes in language and thought, not vice versus. Semantics- language's meaning system -Speech differences are associated with and tell a lot about social variation (religion, education, ethnicity and gender) -no language is a uniform system in which everyone talks just like each other -Sociolinguistics also investigate relationships between social and linguistic variations -focus on features that vary systematically with social position and situation -variation with in a language at a given time in historical change in process. Style shifts: variation in our speech in different contexts Diglossa: People regularly switch their dialects -applies to 'high' and 'low' variants of the same language. -tendancies to see particular dialects as 'cruder' or more sophisticated than other is a social not a linguistic, judgement. -we use and evaluate speech in the context of extralinguistic forces -> social, political and economic Black English Vernacular (BEV): relatively uniform dialect spoken by the majority of black youth in most parts of the USA today -especially in inner city urban areas -also in most rural areas (casual intimate conversations of adults) Historical Linguistics: deals with longer-term change -reconstructs many features of past languages by studying daughter languages -> languages that descend from the same parent language and have been changing separately for hundreds or thousands of years Protolanguage = the original language -language changes over time into Subgroups -> languages within a taxonomy of related languages that are most closely related. -dialects become distinct daughter languages Language Loss is an aspect of linguistic history -when a language disappears cultural diversity is reduced as well - in the past 500 years language count has been cut in half Chapter 5 KOTTAK - ―Making a Living‖ – Summary Adaptive Strategies Adaptive strategy: a society‘s system of economic production -5 adaptive strategies developed by Cohen: foraging, horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism, and industrialism Foraging -all humans were foragers until 10 000 years ago -animal domestication and plant cultivation started 10 – 12000 years ago in the Middle East (most forgers eventually turned to food production) -never adopted food production because their own economies provided a nutritious diet (less work) -modern foragers are influenced by international policies and economic events in the world system -Africa‘s 2 belts of foraging: San (bushmen) and Mbuti -modern foragers now use modern technology -foraging survives in areas where food production is difficult Correlates of foraging Correlations: association between two or more variables -many correlations between the economy and social life Band: basic social unit of foragers (related by kinship or marriage) -mobility is a characteristic of foraging life -bands are exogamous (people can join by marriage) -division of labour based on gender (men hunt and fish, women gather and collect) -foraging societies are egalitarian (contrasts are mostly based on age and gender rather than prestige) Cultivation -3 adaptive strategies based on food production: horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism Horticulture -cultivation that makes intensive use on none of the factors of production -often involves slash-and-burn techniques -relationship between people and land is not permanent (shift plots rather than settlements) Agriculture -requires large amounts of labor -uses land intensively and continuously Domesticated animals: use animals as means of production Irrigation: they control water so they can schedule their planting in advance Terracing: population is dense so people need to farm the hills, so they cut into the hillside and build raised fields Costs and benefits: can yield crops for many years, but their yield relative to the labor invested is low -range of environments available for food production has widened with increased control over nature -agriculturalists are sedentary (larger and more permanent communities) -agricultural plots reduce ecological diversity Pastoralism -focus on domesticated animals Symbiosis: obligatory interaction between groups that is beneficial to each one -use their herd for food, supplement their diet by hunting, gathering, fishing, cultivating, or trading -2 patterns of movement: Nomadism (the entire group moves with the animals throughout the year) and Transhumance (part of the group moves with the hers, but most of them stay in the village) Economic systems Economy: system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources (economic anthropology studies economics in a comparative perspective) Mode of production: way of organizing production -capitalist mode – money buys labor power -nonindustrial societies – labor is not bought but given as a social obligation Production in nonindustrial societies -tasks assigned to each sex and people of different ages vary Means of production -includes land, labor, and technology Land: rights to use a band‘s territory are acquired by being born in the band or by joining it through a tie of kinship or marriage Labor and tools: access to land and labor comes through kinship and marriage. Most people of a particular age and gender share the same technical knowledge -Some tribal societies promote specialization (reflects social and political environment) Alienation in Industrial Societies -in industrial societies, workers are often alienated from the items workers make (they make them for the employer‘s profit) -no pride or personal identification with the items produced -in nonindustrial societies, people see their work through from start to finish and feel a sense of pride and accomplishment -industrial workers have impersonal relations -nonindustrial workers have social relations with economic aspects Economizing and Maximization -focuses on systems of human behavior and individuals participating in the systems -motivation is a concern of anthropologists -assumption that individuals try to maximize profits is basic to capitalism and Western economic theory -economic theory assumes our wants are infinite while our means are limited (people make the most rational choice, the one that maximizes profit) Alternative ends Subsistence fund: replacing the calories used in daily activity Replacement fund: maintaining technology and other items essential to production Social fund: helping friends, relatives, in-laws, and neighbors Ceremonial fund: expenditures on ceremonies or rituals Rent fund: rendering to an individual or agency that is superior Peasants: small-scale agriculturalists who live in nonindustrial states and have rent fund obligations (live in state-organized societies, produce food without elaborate technology) -peasants must satisfy government obligations and pay taxes -people are prevented from maximizing self-interest by factors beyond their control Distribution, Exchange -3 principles that guide exchange: market principle, redistribution, reciprocity -the one that dominates is the one that allocates the means of production The Market Principle -governs the distribution of the means of production -items are bought and sold and value is determined by the law of supply and demand (things cost more the more people want them) Redistribution -operates when goods, services, or their equivalent move from the local level to a centre (capital, regional collection point, etc...) Reciprocity -exchange between social equals, who normally are related by kinship, marriage, or a close personal tie -dominant in egalitarian societies -2 degrees: generalized, balanced, and negative Generalized reciprocity: exchanges between closely related people Balanced reciprocity: social distance increases, as does the need to reciprocate Negative reciprocity: social distance is greatest and reciprocation is most calculated Reciprocity continuum: range from generalized to negative reciprocity Potlatching -festive event within a regional exchange system among tribes of the North Pacific Coast of North America -sponsors give away food, blankets, or other items -potlatching as an example of conspicuous consumption: potlatching is based on an irrational drive for prestige (according to Thorstein Veblen) Ecological anthropology: theoretical school that attempts to interpret cultural practices and their role in helping humans adapt to their environment Kottak Chapter 6 Political Systems What is ―The Political‖? • Morton Fried‘s definition of political organization : ―political organization comprises those portions of social organization that specifically relate to the individuals or groups that manage the affairs of public policy or seek to control the appointment or activities of those individuals or groups.‖ (1967, pp. 20-21) • Fried‘s definition fits contemporary North America – Federal, provincial, and municipal governments would be ―individuals or groups that manage the affairs of public policy‖ – Political parties, unions, corporations, consumers, activists, action committees, religious groups, and NGOs would be those who seek to influence public policy • Fried‘s definition is much less applicable to nonstates, where ―public policy‖ was hard to find • Kottak uses the term ―sociopolitical organization‖ for regulation or management of relations among groups and their representatives • Political regulation includes decision making, social control and conflict resolution Types and Trends • According to Elman Service (1962) there are 4 types/levels of political organization: • Band: small, kin-based group (members related by kin or marriage) found among foragers • Tribe: had economies based on horticulture and pastoralism, lived in villages and organized into groups by clans and lineages, lacked a formal gvt, and had no reliable means of enforcing political decisions • Chiefdom: form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state. Social relations based mainly on kinship, marriage, descent, age, generation, and gender, featuring differential access to resources and a permanent political structure • State: form of sociopolitical organization based on a formal gvt structure and socioeconomic stratification • Types cannot be studied as a self-contained form of political organization since they exist within the context of nation-states and are subject to state control • Problem with Service‘s typology – too simple • Sociopolitical typology: classification scheme based on the scale and complexity of social organization and the effectiveness of political regulation; includes band, tribe, chiefdom, and state • Foragers tended to have band organizations, while many horticulturalists and pastoralists lived in tribes Bands and Tribes Foraging Bands • Modern hunter-gatherers represent what‘s left of foraging band societies living in nation-states in an interlinked world • All foragers now trade with food producers • Most modern hunter-gatherers rely on gvts and missionaries for at least some of their food • Ie the Basarwa San: - Foraging band affected by policies of the Botswana gvt - Ancestral lands became a wildlife reserve, they were relocated by gvt - Political and economic system dominated by Europeans and bantu food producers (Wilmsen, 1989) - Moving away from foraging: currently tend cattle for bantu and have domesticated animals - Illustrate links between foraging economy and other aspects of band society and culture • Second example given - Inuits • Kent (1992, 1996) states that foragers are stereotyped as being culturally deprived and forced into certain areas as a result of colonialism, states, or world events • Conflict Resolution: means by which disputes are socially regulated and settled; found in all societies but the resolution methods tend to be more formal and effective in states than nonstates • Law: a legal code, including trial and enforcement; characteristic of state-organized societies Tribal Cultivators • No completely autonomous tribes today • However, tribal principles continue to operate in societies such as Papua New Guinea • Tribes lack a class structure and a formal gvt • Small scale warfare still occurs in the form of intervillage raiding • No means of enforcing political decisions • Main regulatory officials are village heads aka ―big men‖ • Horticulturalists usually egalitarian, although some have gender stratification The Village Head • Village Head: leadership position in a village (as among the Yanomami, where the head is always a man); has limited authority; leads by example and persuasion • When conflicts arise within the village, headman will listen to both sides and offer his opinion/advice The ―Big Man‖ • Many societies of the south pacific had a big man that was a regulator of regional political organization, and was temporary • Big Man: figure often found among tribal horticulturists and pastoralists. Occupies no office but creates his reputation through entrepreneurship and generosity to others. Neither his wealth nor his position passes to his heirs • Status: any position that determines where someone fits in society; may be ascribed or achieved • Ascribed status: social status (ie race or gender) that people have little or no choice about occupying • Achieved statuses: social status that comes through talents, actions, efforts, activities, and accomplishments, rather than ascription Pantribal Sodalities and Age Grades • Age and gender can be used for regional political integration • Among pastoralists, the degree of authority and political organization reflects population size and density, interethnic relations, and pressure on resources • Pantribal sodalities: a non-kin-based group that exists throughout a tribe, spanning several villages • Age set: group uniting all men or women (usually men) born during a certain time span; this group controls property and often has political and military functions Nomadic Politics • Comparison of pastoralists shows that as regulatory problems increase, political hierarchies are more complex Chiefdoms • Chiefdoms had permanent regional regulation and differential access to resources, lacked stratification Political and Economic Systems in Chiefdoms • Office: permanent political position Status Systems in Chiefdoms and States • Differential access: unequal access to resources: basic attribute of chiefdoms and states. Superordinates have favoured access to such resources, while the access of subordinates is limited by superordinates The Emergence of Stratification • Stratification: characteristic of a system with socioeconomic strata • Wealth: all a person‘s material assets, including income, land, and other types of property; the basis of economic status • Power: the ability to exercise one‘s will over others- to do what one wants; the basis of political status • Prestige: esteem, respect, or approval for acts, deeds, or qualities considered exemplary • The superordinate: the upper or privileged group in a stratified system • The subordinate: the lower or underprivileged group in a stratified system Open and Closed Class Systems • Vertical mobility: • Open-class system: stratification system that facilitates social mobility, with individual achievement and personal merit determining social rank • Caste systems: closed hereditary system of stratification, often dictated by religion; hierarchical social status is ascribed at birth, so that people are locked into their parents‘ social position • Slavery: the most extreme, coercive, abusive, and inhumane form of legalized inequality; people are treated as property States • The state is an autonomous political unit that encompassed many communities while its gvt collects taxes, drafts people for work and war, and decrees and enforces laws. Form of sociopolitical organization based on central gvt and a division of society into classes • Population Control, Judiciary, Enforcement and Fiscal Systems are systems found in all states. Integrated by a ruling system or gvt composed of civil, military and religious officals. • States conduct censuses and demarcate boundaries, laws are based on precedent and legislative proclamations, with judges handling disputes and crimes. • Police forces maintain internal order, as a military defends against external threats in states, and financial or fiscal systems support rulers, officials, judges, and other specialists • Fiscal system: pertaining to finances and taxation KOTTAK CHAPTER 7 Evaporation is by far the most prevalent and effective process which can be used to produce concentrates. Configurations that cannot be used Mechanical Vapour Recompression system cannot be used for a high solid solution. As this system uses steam produced from boiling the product, a high solid solution will have a more boiling point elevation so it will take more time and energy to boil the and hence produce steam. Also MVR is not suitable for high solid content leading to more fouling at high temperature. Wiped or agitated thin film evaporator The wiped or agitated thin film evaporator has limited applications due to its
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