Anthropology Exam Review
• Anthropology shows the difference in modern and ancient cultures around the
• Anthropologists study human beings wherever and whenever they find them.
• Anthropology studies the human condition: Past, present and future; biology,
society, language and culture.
• Holistic Science: Holism refers to the study of the whole of the human condition:
past present and future.
• Cultures are traditions and customs transmitted through learning that form and
guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them.
• Culture is not biological but bio has a lot to do with culture and vice versa.
Language is taught but our bodies are incapable of speaking without certain
muscles to learn.
• Exploring ancient civilizations we discover the mysteries of human existence like
bones and tools.
• Adaptation refers to the processes y which organism cope with environmental
forces and stresses, such as those posed by climate and topography or terrains,
also called landforms.
• Innovations and how they change us. Progression of food: Hunters/Gatherers
Food production/agricultural revolutionIndustrial Revolution.
• General Anthropology also known as fourfield anthropology: sociocultural,
archaeological, biological and linguistic anthropology. Sociocultural is also
referred to as cultural anthropology.
• Changes in social life and customs affect the way people act.
• Archaeologists use studies of living societies to imagine what life might have
been like in the past.
• “Human nature” cannot be derived from studying a single population because all
civilizations are different.
• Comparative, cross cultural approach is essential.
• Biological or physical, anthropology
1. Human evolution as revealed by the fossil record(paleoanthropology)
2. Human genetics
3. Human growth and development
4. Human biological plasticity(ability to cope with adversity)
1. The biology evolution, behavior and social life of monkeys, apes, and
other nonhuman primates.
• Linguistic Anthropology ancestors acquired the ability to speak, although
biological anthropologists have looked to the anatomy of the face and the skll to
speculate about the origin of language.
• Linguistic and cultural anthropologists collaborate in the studying links between
language and many other aspects of culture, such as how people reckon kinship
and how they perceive and classify colors.
• Anthropology blends biological, social, cultural, linguistic, historical and
contemporary perspectives. • Anthropology is a humanistic science devoted to discovering, describing,
understanding, and explaining similarities and differences in time and space
among human and our ancestors. “The science of human similarities and
• Anthropology is the holistic, bicultural and comparative study of humanity. It is
the systematic exploration of human biological and cultural diversity across time
and space. Examining the origins of and changes in human biology and culture,
anthropology provides explanations for similarities and differences among
humans and their societies.
• Children absorb any cultural tradition rests on the uniquely elaborated human
capacity to learn.
• Our own cultural learning depends on the uniquely developed human capacity to
use symbols, sign that have no necessary or natural connection to the things they
stand for or signify.
• Symbolic thought is unique and crucial to humans and to cultural learning. A
symbol is something verbal or nonverbal, within a particular language or culture
that comes to stand for something else.
• Culture is an attributed not of individuals per se but of individuals as members of
groups. Culture is transmitted in society. Don’t we learn our culture by observing,
listening, talking and interacting with many other people? Shared beliefs, values,
memories, and expectations link people who grow up in the same culture.
• Culture takes the natural biological urges we share with other animals and teaches
us how to express them in particular ways.
• For anthropologists, culture includes much more than refinement, good taste,
sophistication, education and appreciation of the fine arts.
• The most interesting and significant cultural forces are those that affect people
every day of their lives, particularly those that influence children during
• Cultures are not haphazard collections of customs and beliefs. Cultures are
integrated patterned systems.
• Culture is the main reason for human adaptability and success.
• Humans also adapt biologicallyfor example, by shivering when we get cold or
sweating when we get hot.
• People also use culture to fulfill psychological and emotional needs, such as
friendship, companionship, approval, and being desired sexually.
• Hominidae is the zoological family that includes fossil and living humans, as well
as chimps and gorillas.
• The term hominis is used for the group that leads to humans but not to chimps and
gorillas and that encompasses all the human species that ever existed.
• Certain biological, psychological, social, and cultural features are universal, found
in every culture. Others are merely generalities, common to several but not all
human groups. Still other traits are particularities unique to certain cultural
traditions. • A cultural particularity is a trait or feature of culture that is not generalized or
widespread; rather it is confined to a single, culture, or society, yet because of
cultural borrowing, which has accelerated through modern transportation and
communication systems, traits that once were limited in their distribution have
become more widespread.
• Cultures vary in just which events merit special celebration.
• Cultures vary tremendously in their, beliefs, practices, integration, and patterning,
by focusing on and trying to explain alternative customs, anthropology forces us
to reappraise our familiar ways of thinking.
• Culture and the individual agency and practice: the system can refer to various
concepts including culture, society, social relations, or social structure.
• Culture is both public and individual, both in the world and in peoples minds.
Anthropologists are interested not only in public and collective behavior but also
in how individuals think, feel, act.
• Culture has been seen as social glue transmitted across the generations, binding
people through their common past, rather than as something being continually
created and reworked in the present.
• The practice theory recognizes that individuals within a society or culture have
diverse motives and intentions and different degrees of power and influence.
• All of us creatively consume and interpret print media music television, films,
theme parks, celebrities, politicians and other popular culture products differently.
• International culture extends beyond and across national boundaries. Because
culture is transmitted though learning rather than genetically, cultural traits can
spread through borrowing or diffusion from on group to another.
• Subcultures are different symbolbased patterns and traditions associated with
particular groups in the same complex society.
• Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view ones own culture as superior and to apply