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ANTH 1150
Tad Mc Ilwraith

EVALUATION Chapter Review I (written assignment) 15% Chapter Review II (written assignment) 15% Midterm Exam 35% Final Exam 35% Final exam: You will be responsible for material from the entire course; emphasis will be placed on material from the second half of term. A handout explaining the exam format and content will be provided through courselink a minimum of one week in advance of the exam. NEED → March 27th- language ? March 18th + 20th - social stratification + language March 11 + 13 - Politics and social stratification March 6 - religion/politics Feb 25??? Feb 18 + 20??? MIDTERM TOPICS Topics Covered To Date: (Note: This list is not exhaustive. Also, if there are things on this list that we don’t get to, you aren’t responsible for them.) Films and Slide Presentations: Cannibal Tours Hunting in a Modern World (Tahltans) Ongka’s Big Moka Introduction archaeology biological/physical anthropology linguistic anthropology cultural anthropology applied anthropology ethnography ethnographer ethnocentrism cultural relativity culture Culture and Methods field fieldwork participant observation etic emic theory cultural evolution historical particularism Franz Boas EB Tylor Positivism Phenomenology Economic Anthropology Tahltans 5 economic systems Foraging, Horticulture, Pastoralism, Agriculture, Industrial capitalism sustainability Consumption and Exchange Consumption Gift economy Types of exchanges reciprocity (generalized, balanced, negative) redistribution market exchange potlatch altruism moka Kinship, Descent, Marriage kinship descent system and group patrilineal/matrilineal descent bilateral descent exogamy endogamy Nayar monogamy polygyny polyandry Introduction to Anthropology Lecture 1 - What is ethnocentrism and why should anthropologists be aware of what it is? o Judging other people, their behaviours and actions on the biases of your own beliefs, values, experiences, standards o It might impose your biases on your research when anthropologists should be impartial and remain neutral § Such as when religious and moral values come into question § Different cultures define who you can have sex with § Includes things such as tattoos, piercings, cannibalism, incest, hate crimes, etc. § At what point do you conform your values to the values of the group being researched o Cultural Relativity § Hedican – Cultural relativity is the intellectual antidote for ethnocentrism § Try to understand others based on their values, beliefs, histories and likes § Suggesting that you have to put aside your own biases and values to observe what is happening § Through long-term field work anthropologists tend to build relationships and become connected to the subjects § Absolute Cultural Relativity · No judging is allowed · Participation and observation demands neutral, unbiased observation · Whatever happens, happens because that is how they do things there · When human rights are involved it becomes tougher then the question becomes “Who’s human rights are the correct human rights” § Critical Cultural Relativity · Try to understand the context for why a practice occurs · Tries to figure out who benefits and who is hurt by different cultural practices - Culture o EB Tyler (1871) – defined culture as a set of learned values, behaviours, and beliefs characteristic of a group (140 year old definition used in textbook) o Everything people have, think and do o Have to be taught the specifics of a culture, not something you are born with o Characteristics of Culture § Learned § Symbol-based · Something that stands for something else · Most obvious in the human use of language – sounds to represent ideas · Bathroom signs § Shared within a group § Constantly interacting and changing as a result of other cultures · Adopt and change ideas § Adaptive · Adaptation to environment · Its our cultural adaptations that allow us to live in other environments · Biology may help but known skills can still enable someone to adapt § Integrated within themselves · Cultures are holistic - Ancestral Lines – John Barker o Works with a group of people called the Maisin in Papua New Guinea in the village of Uiaku o Over 700 different languages spoken in Papua New Guinea o Central metaphor – Tapa cloth § All different aspects of Maisin can be associated the production of Tapa o Composed of 2 stories § First Story: the story of the Maisin people § Second Story: Barker’s story and experiences - Ethnography: the study and systematic recording of human cultures - Fim: Cannibal Tours by Dennis O’Rourke o Set along the Sepik River in Papua New Guinea o Cannibalism is usually the scariest and weirdest possible thing to understand § Cannibalism is almost always something what other people do, not what we do, and is about creating “others” (ethnocentricism) § Cannibalism occurs due to: · Duty (ritual or initiation practice) · Desire · Desperation o Really about rich American and European tourists touring the river, trying to find views of the indigenous people o Put yourself in the position of the: § Filmmaker § Tourists § Indigenous peoples o Look for examples of ethnocentrism and think about the relation with anthropology and tourism - The tourists refer to the indigenous people as if they animals at a zoo, stating that the experts say they are happy and well fed, and also that they do not worry about tomorrow. Lecture 2 - Examples of ethnocentrism in Cannibal tours: o The tourists find the art of the indigenous peoples to be primitive o Missionaries would come in and tell them that their objects are the work of the devil o Boat scene when the Germans talk about cholesterol are having a really idiotic fancy conversation, getting their food from machines - Connection between anthropology and tourism in Cannibal tours: o Tourists don’t have to remain objective o Different kind of participation between tourists and anthropologists - Methods of Research in Anthropology o What is the field? § A place/location with people and culture o What is fieldwork? § Work done in the field (e.g. participation, observation, interviews) to answer some kind of research question § Almost always based on 1 hand experience o What is an arrival story § A narrative/presentation of how fieldwork begins § Barker’s Arrival Story (Ancestral Lines, p. 12-14) o Participant observation § Central method of cultural anthropology § Paying close attention in your own life and society when you don’t know all the rules for appropriate behaviour § An anthropologist lives in and studies another culture/group of people over a long period of time § Is a process of learning § Dual purpose: involves 1) Participation and 2) Observation § Field notes § Involves adopting the features of life as best as you can in the community that you’re living in § Barbara Monsey “Vending Machines: Order and Disorder” · Social science and participant observation being used to help businesses; “Corporate Anthropology” o 5 Gum as an accessory for teenagers and young adults o Vending machine design § Strengths to participant observation: · Long term approach · Produces a lot of data · Very flexible st · Possibility of a better understanding through 1 person observation · Good way at getting at obvious and visible behaviour § Weaknesses to participant observation: · Long term approach (cant learn about how other people live in a short period of time) · Produces a lot of data (frequently messy – can’t immediately see how the pieces fit together or how it might help you answer the questions) which takes a lot of time to sort through · People act differently when watched although the long-term effects of being around them could change that o When people change their behaviour its tougher to do it for the long-term · Very hard to get at subtle behaviour and why they behave like that o Therefore often requires some kind of follow-up · Possibility of limited data and bias o Risk “going native” – not being able to see things with a clear eye o Fine line between not knowing people and getting to know them too much · Small sample size Lecture 3 - Genevieve Bell – Anthropologist for Intel o “Reinvent the logic of how we experience technology.” o Met a guy at a bar who told her that she could do more with anthropology than just teach o “Future of computing is experiences” - Data and Explanations o Helps with Hecican (especially chapters 3,[4], and 5) o Perspectives on Data § Emic · The insider’s perspective · The perspective that you have on your own group and your own life experiences · Sometimes said to be subjective · The particular information (e.g. Maisin Tahltan) · Represented by the ethnography · Comes from the word “phon[emic]” o The study of sounds of particular languages · Phenomenology o The study of phenomenon o Assume that we can attach our own meaning to our own life and actions o Individuals create their own meanings and there is not 1 social reality for all of us o Emphasizes the particular/unique § Etic · The outsider’s perspective (sometimes referred to as a theoretical perspective) · The view of the scientist/researcher/expert · Brings data together into a single analytical framework to allow comparisons to be made · Sometimes called the objective perspective · The expert is more important than the person who lived it by our system’s standards · The general information (e.g. Hedican’s book) o Economics o Families o Politics o Religion · Represented by the ethnology · Comes from the word “phon[etic]” o The study of sounds of all human languages · Positivism o A perspective on the world/human behaviour that says the social world is patterned/orderly/governed by laws o The world can be observed and clearly documented o The world and people’s behaviours can be measured o Emphasize the general/regular § We need both the Emic and the Etic, the Phenomenology and the Positivism - Theories in Anthropology o Theories are a form or a type of explanation o Etic framework – allows for comparison o Dry because it reduces everything to such a shell that there is no emotion (reductionist) 1. Cultural Evolution a. Herbert Spencer b. EB Tylor – defined culture as all of the learned values shared through a group i. They say that there is one path of cultural evolution/change ii. That all cultures pass through the same stages of cultural development iii. Argue that over time cultures change from simple to complex 1. Savagery – most simple stage of a society a. People who have fire b. Food comes via hunting c. Stone tools d. Live in group families – everybody is having sex with everybody else e. Matrilineal – a family where mothers are raising their children f. Animists – belief in spirits in gods where every living this has a spirit that are all essentially similar 2. Barbarianism – Next stage a. Early stages of farming b. Metals c. Patrilineal – men start to get interested in who their kids are d. Polygamy – families that have more than one wives e. Polytheism – many gods that are personified 3. Civilization – most complex stage of a society a. Agriculture b. Steel c. Monogamy – 1 man, 1 woman d. Monotheism – religious belief system around 1 god iv. Cultures now are all equally complex 2. Historical Particularism a. Franz Boas – reacts to cultural evolution – father of cultural relativism i. Tries to get away from “race” for why some people are savages or primitive ii. Engages in long-term, participant-observation fieldwork iii. Went around the world and started hanging out with people and came to the conclusion that each culture has its own particular history iv. Pluralized the word culture v. The Emic is emphasized b. Embraced today and held up as a moral direction Lecture 4 – Economic Anthropology - Economic system: a society’s dominant primary way of providing for people’s material needs - 5 economic systems (from oldest to newest) of human history: o Foraging: § Oldest of the economic systems § Tahtan – Iskut Village § Hunting of animals, gathering of plant food, fishing · Hunting could include snares, traps, bows and arrows · Gathering could include the digging of roots, the collecting of berries and shellfish, the stripping of bark § Foragers are food collectors § The only system dependent on the collection of wild food while the other use food production § Extensive activity – uses/requires a lot of land but land is used lightly and not all of it is always in use · Seasonal Round – Foragers could make rounds based on the seasons within their territory o Foraging people move with purpose knowing exactly what to expect in particular places therefore are not Nomadic (aimless wandering) § Labour: · Small in population · Membership is flexible · Family membership · Age determines roles: o Children usually gather food o Adults usually hunt · Stereotype: men hunt, women gather – not always true but, true in many places o Efficiency dictates roles § Property: · Land is not owned · Have use areas where they harvest plants and animals · Sharing is important § Sustainability and change: · Foragers are affected by the activities of agriculturalists and industrialists · Argue that foraging was sustainable for hundreds of thousands of years but foragers have to be able to move, if they can’t move it’s unlikely to work since restrictions of movement come from increasing population and restrict movement by fencing off property o Horticulture: § Growing of domesticated crops/plants in gardens with technologically simple tools · Digging sticks, garden hoes, baskets, grinding stones, etc § Like farming but uses basic tools and happens in a relatively small scale § Appears 10,000-12,000 years go § Maisin § Most common in places with predictable rainfall § Guns, Germs and Steel – Jared Diamond · 200,000 species of flowering plants o Tree crops – bananas o Seed crops – wheat o Root crops – potatoes, yams o Fibre crops – cotton o Melons § Surplus creates social inequality § Extensive activity like foraging · Horticultural cycle: o Clear land o Planting of crops o Weeding o Harvesting o Soil regeneration § E.g. slashing and burning (swidden horticulture) § E.g. fallow (leave garden alone for 10-20 years) and move garden § Sustainability and change · Yes, but you must be able to move, (leave your garden and fallow) § Labour: · Maisin (patrilineal) o Men clear o Women tend to and harvest crops o Men and women plant Lecture 5 o Pastoralism: § Appears 10,000 years ago § Economy depends on milk and meat produced by domesticated animals § Rainfall is unpredictable · E.g. Middle East, South Europe, Sub-Saharan, U.S. Southwest (Navajo – sheep), Africa · Animals (Jared Diamond) o 148 species of animals which at adulthood will weigh at least 100 lbs. (45kgs), 14 of which have been domesticated and 5 make up the majority o Need to be animals that live in herds/social group that follow a leader (you) o Animals need to have a flexible diet and shouldn’t be carnivores o Need to grow quickly o Animals need to be pleasant o Animals that aren’t flighty § These 5 are: · Sheep · Goat · Cow · Horse · Pig (Not
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