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ANTH 1150 FINAL REVIEW.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTH 1150
Professor
Troy Riddell
Semester
Winter

Description
ANTHFINALREVIEWHarrisCh8HouseholdadomesticgroupwhosememberslivetogetherandcooperateonadailybasisinproductionandsharetheproceedsoflaborandotherresourcesheldincommonNuclearfamilyconsistsofahusbandwifeandkidsFormsofMarriageMonogamyPolygamyPolygynyPolyandryMonogamythemarriageofonemantoonewomanatatimePolygamyreferstoamarriagetomorethanonespouseatatimePolygynyamanmarriesmultiplewomenPolyandrywomanmarriesmultiplemenExtendedfamilyisadomesticgroupconsistingofseveralrelatednuclearfamiliesandmayincludesiblingstheirspousesandtheirchildrenorparentsandmarriedchildrenMatrifocalhouseholdadomesticgroupcomprisingofoneormoreadultwomenwiththeiroffspringwithinwhichhusbandsfathersarenotpermanentresidentsBridewealththetransferofvaluedgoodsfromthefamilyofthegroomtothefamilyofthebridewhenacouplemarriesRepresentsthecompensationtothebridesfamilyforthelossofherlaborandherchildbearingcapacitiesBrideservicecompensatesthebridesfamilyforthelossofadaughterThegroommovesinwiththebridesfamilyandworksinexchangeforhismaritalrightsDowryatransferofgoodsormoneyfromthebridesfamilytothegroomItrepresentscompensationforthefuturesupportofthewomanandherfuturechildrenandisfoundinsocietieswherewomencontributerelativelylittletosubsistenceSororateacustombywhichawifeisreplacedinmarriagewithhersisterLevirateacustominwhichawidowmarriesherhusbandsbrotherHypergamytheuseofdowrypaymentstoimproveadaughterschanceofmarryingupandassureabetterfutureforgrandchildrenExogamytherulethatforbidsanindividualfromtakingaspousefromwithinaprescribedlocalgroupinwhichtheyarebothmembersEndogamytherulethatrequiresanindividualtotakeaspousefromagroupwhichherorsheisamemberIncesttabooguardssexualimpulseswithinthefamilythatwouldleadtosexualcompetitionandthedisruptionofthestabilityofthefamilyCh9KinshipreferstorelationshipsthatarebasedonparentagethroughdescentknownasconsanguinealrelationsandtorelatednessthroughmarriageknownasaffinalrelationsConsanguinealandaffinalrelationsConsaguinealrelationshipsbasedonparentaldescentaffinalrelationshipsbasedonmarriageUnilinealdescentrulesrestrictparentallinksexclusivelytomalesorfemalesCognaticdescentrulesusebothmaleandfemaleparentagetoestablishanyofthepreviouslymentioneddutiesrightsprivilegesDescentBilateralthereckoningofkinshipevenlyandsymmetricallyalongmaternalandpaternallinksinascendinganddescendinggenerationsthroughindividualsofbothsexesAmbilinealisthereckoningofkinshipthrougheithermaternalorpaternallinksdependingonwhichkingroupprovidesgreateropportunitiesDoubletracesdescentmatrilineallyforsomepurposesandpatrilineallyforothersPatrilinealrequiresegotofollowtheascendinganddescendinggenealogicallinksthroughmalesonlyIncludesmembersofbothgenderMatrilinealrequiresegoofollowtheascendinganddescendinglinksthroughfemalesonlyBothgendersareincludedParallelcousinsthechildrenofegosfathersbrotherormotherssisterandareregardedasbrothersandsistersCrosscousinsthechildrenofegosfatherssisterormothersbrotherandareregardedasaffinesorpotentialmarragematesKindredconsistsofegosclosebilateralrelativeswhoformagroupthatcomestogetherforsuchoccasionswhenegoisbornmarriesgivesafeastandsoonCognaticlineageconsistsofallthedescendantsofanapicalancestororancestresswhoreckondescentthroughanycombinationofmaleorfemaledescentsUnilinealdescentgrouphaveaclearlydefinedmembershipthatdelineateslineagemembersfromnonmembersBilocalityamarriedcoupleelectstostayforshortintervalsbetweenshiftsofresidencebetweenthewifeskinandhusbandskinNeolocalitydiffersfrombilocalityinnotestablishingresidencewithkingroupsatallPatrilocalityassociatedwithinternalwarfareMenarekeptclosetohomebecausewarfareislocalMatrilocalityandcausesofmatrilocalityassociatedwithlongdistancetradeandexternalwarfareWomentakecareofthehomewhilemenareawayAvunculocalityandcausesofavanculocalitymaintainsamalefraternalinterestgroupintheresidentialcoreofthematrilinealdescentgroupAvunculocalitythusprovidesthebestoftwoworldsformaleswhoaspiretomilitaryandpoliticalleadershipKinshipterminologiesInuitgenerallylackcorporatedecentgroupsThenuclearfamilystandsoutasaseparateandfunctionallydominantproductiveandreproductiveunitSeparatekintermsareusedfornuclearfamilymembersthatarenotextendedtoanyotherkintypeHawaiianthesameterminappliedtopeopleinsideandoutsideofthefamilyasingletermisusedforallrelativesofthesamesexandgenerationIroquoisdistinguishesbetweencrossandparallelcousinsandcrossandparallelauntsandunclesThispatternmergingoccursasaresultofthesharedmembershipofsiblingsincorporateunilinealdescentgroupsandmarriagealliancesbasedoncrosscousinmarriagebetweensuchgroupsCh10EgalitariansocietylacksformalizeddifferentiationinaccesstoandpoweroverbasicresourcesamongitsmembersShamansparttimepractitionersofmagicoreligiousritesofdivinationandcuringskilledinslightofhandandthetechniquesoftranceandpossessionHeadmanarelativelypowerlessfigureincapableofcompellingobediencecomparedtoapresidentforexampleAchievedstatusacquiredthroughtalentseffortsandaccomplishmentsratherthanascriptionTheleopardskinchiefisanoutsidemediatorwhoIbelievedtohavesupernaturalpowersCalledontoresolvedisputesbetweenkingroupsandpreventtheescalationofhostilitiesSodalitiesnonkinshipbasedgroupsthatspanseveralvillagesandservewidelydifferentfunctionsWararmedcombatbetweengroupsofpeoplewhoconstituteseparateterritorialteamsorpoliticalcommunitiesWarfareamongsedentaryvillagesocietiespeopleamongsmallsedentaryvillagesexpandedthescaleofmilitaryengagementsbecausetheyhavemorepossessionstodefendTheycannotsimplymovewhenadisputearisesExTheNyangatomwhohaveamixedeconomyofpastoralismandagricultureandneedlargeareasoflandtosurviveWhyWarExplanationsforwarfareInstincthumansareaggressivebytendencythatmakesushateotherpeopleWarassportpeopleenjoythethrillofusingviolencetestingcombatWarasrevengeancestorskilledinpreviousbattlesmustbeavengedWarasastruggleforreproductivesuccessfiercewarriorsaremoreattractiveasmatesWarasastruggleformaterialbenefitsRanksocietyhasequalaccesstoeconomicresourcesandpowerbutsocialgroupshaveunequalaccesstostatuspositionsandprestigebigmanalocalentrepreneurwhosuccessfullymobilizesandmanipulateswealthonbehalfofhisgroupinordertohostlargefeaststhatenhancehisstatusandrankrelativetootherbigmenintheregionHeisamanofprestigeandrenownbuthasnoformalauthorityorpowernormorewealthCh11ChiefdomsregionalsystemsintegratingseveralvillagesunderaneliteclassofleadersTheseleaderscontrolandmanagelocalresourcesfromwhichtheyderiveobligatorypaymentsThesepaymentsareusedtoestablishthechiefsrankandprestigeBox111BigManversusChiefBigManStatusachievedthroughabilitytoattractfollowersFollowersprovidehimwithwealththatheusesinfeaststogetmorefollowersDoesnothaveimprovedqualityoflivingHistoricallyfiercewarriorsChiefHoldinheritedofficePositionispermanentLivesbetterthancommonersTheoriginsofstatesmusthaveapopulationincreaseintensiveagriculturewithstorablestaplescircumscriptionthatrestrictsmigrationtochangefromachiefdomtoastateStratifiedsocietyarrangesthestatusesorsubgroupsaccordingtosociallysuperiorandinferiorranksthatreproduceinequalityIdeologyasasourceofpowerformsofthoughtcontrolideologydirectsthoughtsthatlegitimizetheactionsoftherulingeliteanditmotivatespeopletoworkfortheinterestsoftherulingsegmentsofsocietyCh12ClassagroupwhosememberspossesssimilaramountsofpowerwithinastratifiedsocietyPowertheabilitytoforceotherpeopletoobeyonesrequestsordemandsOpenclasssystemspeoplecanmoveupordownthehierarchyasinmodernWesterndemocracies
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