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ANTH 1150 Study Guide - 23Rd Parallel North, Linguistic Anthropology, Moral Relativism


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 1150
Professor
Marta Rohatynskyj

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Mirror For Humanity: Key Terms
1. Adaptation: the process by which organism cope with environmental stress
2. Anthropology: the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors
3. Applied anthropology: the application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and
methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems
4. Archaeological anthropology: the branch of anthropology that reconstructs, describes,
and interprets human behaviour and cultural patterns through material remains; best
known for the study of prehistory
5. Biocultural: referring to the inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural
approaches
6. Biological/physical anthropology: the branch of anthropology that studies human
biological diversity in time and space – for instance hominid evolution, human genetics,
human biological adaptation – also includes primatology (monkeys and apes)
7. Cultural anthropology: the study of human society and culture; describes analyzes,
interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences
8. Cultural resource management: the branch of applied anthropology aimed at preserving
sites threatened by dams, highways and other projects (archaeological)
9. Cultures: traditions and customs that govern behaviour and beliefs; distinctly human;
transmitted through learning
10. Ethnography: field work in a particular culture
11. Ethnology: the theoretical, comparative study of society and culture; compares cultures
in time and space
12. Food production: plant cultivation and animal domestication
13. General anthropology: the field of anthropology as a whole, consisting of cultural,
archaeological, biological and linguistic anthropology
14. Holistic: interested in the whole of the human condition past, present and future; biology,
society, language, and culture
15. Linguistic anthropology: The branch of anthropology that studies linguistic variation in
time and space including interrelations between language and culture (includes historical
linguistics and sociolinguistics)
16. Natural selection: originally formulated by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace; the
process by which nature selects the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given
environment such as the tropics

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17. Phenotype: an organisms evident traits, its “manifest biology” – anatomy and physiology
18. Racial classification: the attempt to assign humans to discrete categories based on
common ancestors
19. Science: a systematic field of study or body of knowledge that aims, through experiment,
observation, and deduction, to produce reliable explanations of phenomena, with
reference to the material and physical world
20. Sociolinguistics: study of relationships between social and linguistic variation; study of
language in a social context
21. Tropics: geographic belt extending about 23 degrees north and south of the equator,
between the tropic of Cancer(north) and the Tropic of Capricorn(south)
22. Acculturation: the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into
continuous firsthand contact; the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may
be altered, but the groups remain distinct
23. Core values: key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture and help distinguish it
from others
24. Cultural relativism: the position that the values and standards of cultures differ and
deserve respect. Anthropology is characterised by methodological rather than moral
relativism: in order to understand a culture fully, anthropologists try to understand its
member’s beliefs and motivations. Methodological relativism does not preclude making
moral
25. Cultural rights: doctrine that certain rights are vested not in individuals but in identifiable
groups, such as religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies
26. Diffusion: borrowing between cultures either directly or through intermediaries
27. Enculturation: the social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the
generations
28. Ethnocentrism: the tendency to view ones own culture and best and to judge the
behaviour and beliefs of culturally different people by ones own standards
29. Generality: culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies
30. Globalization: the acceleration interdependence of nations in a world system linked
economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems
31. Hominid: a member of the taxonomic family that includes humans and the African apes
and their immediate ancestors
32. Hominins: a member of the human lineage after its split from ancestral chimps

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33. Human rights: doctrine that invokes a realm of justice and morality beyond and superior
to particular countries, cultures, and religions. Includes right to speak freely, to hold
religious beliefs without persecution and not to be enslaved
34. Independent invention: development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate
cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances
35. Intellectual property rights: each society’s cultural base – its core beliefs and principles.
IPR is claimed as a group right – a cultural right allowing indigenous groups to control
who may know and use their collective knowledge and its applications
36. International culture: cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries
37. National culture: cultural experiences, beliefs, learned behaviour patterns, and values
shared by citizens of the same nation
38. Particularity: distinctive or unique culture trait pattern or integration
39. Subcultures: different cultural symbol-based traditions associated with subgroups in the
same complex society
40. Symbol: something verbal or non-verbal that arbitrarily and by convention stands for
something else with which it has no necessary connection
41. Universal: something that exists in every culture
42. Complex societies: nations, large and populous with social stratification and central
governments
43. Cultural consultant: someone the ethnographer gets to know in the field who teaches
him or her about their society and culture
44. Emic: the research strategy that focuses on native explanations and criteria of
significance (getting inside their head)
45. Etic: the research strategy that emphasises the observers rather than the natives
explanations, categories and criteria of significance (simply observing)
46. Genealogical method: procedures by which ethnographers discover and record
connections of kinship, decent, and marriage using diagrams and symbols
47. Informed consent: an agreement sought by ethnographers from community members to
take part in research
48. Interview schedule: ethnographic tool for structuring a formal interview. A prepared form
that guides interviews with households or individuals being compared systematically.
Contrasts with a questionnaire because the researcher has personal contact and
records peoples answers
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