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Final

ANTH 1150 Study Guide - Final Guide: Endogamy, Acculturation, Exogamy


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 1150
Professor
Tad Mc Ilwraith
Study Guide
Final

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Films and Slide Presentations:
Witchcraft Among the Azande:
Witchcraft and sorcery
Use of witchcraft is really about social control
Magic is used to solve legal problems
Used “poison oracles” to make legal decisions
oCalled Benge
Hunters and Bombers:
Hunters: Innu people (native to Labrador)
Bombers: Air forces from several NATO countries conducting low level flights
over Innu hunting territory
Impact of jets debated
Discusses change in Innu hunting due to flights
Discusses the cultural change that occurs in this community due to flights
occurring overhead
Innu people resisted change to their way of life – protested flights
A foraging society is affected negatively by agriculturalists and industrialists
Film promotes “advocacy anthropology” – pushing a message onto the viewer
Marriage: the formalizing of a relationship of in law kin
Exogamy: marriage outside of your own group (family or otherwise)
Endogamy: marriage within your own group (family or otherwise)
Nayar: the exception to the rule that all cultures have marriages
The Nayar society did not have marriage
Families had property owning groups and men fought in wars
Ceremonies and rituals occurred between men and women but nothing that would
be considered “marriage”
3 exchanges:
oTali-tying: wedding like ceremony between young people for girl to
become woman
oSan Bandham: woman in adulthood chooses man to have an approved
sexual relationship with (ceremony where gifts are exchanged)
oChildren: father acknowledges paternity, pays for midwife and is present
at birth but does not support child afterward
Monogamy: One marriage between two spouses
Polygyny: one man who has more than one wife
Families tend to be larger and grow faster because more than one wife can be
pregnant at once
Most common type of marriage in the world
Tend to be found in societies with higher demand for physical labour
Found in patrilineal societies (men control descent groups)
Polyandry: one woman who has more than one husband
Families tend to be smaller

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Found in matrilineal societies (women control descent groups)
Least common type of marriage in the world (found in ~4 societies in the world)
Religion and Ritual
Religion: many definitions
Malinowski: a universal within a culture
E.B. Tylor: a belief simply in spirits
Hedican: does not define
Other: cultural beliefs and actions in the supernatural
Ritual: religion in action
The way in which people practice their religion
Can also be secular (non religious)
Formal in nature – recognizable
Supernatural: varies by culture
Not all cultures have things which are defined as supernatural
Some cultures do not have a distinction between natural and supernatural
Victor Turner: Studied in Zambia
Nidembu people
Defined ritual as “time of attention to symbols”
oSymbol: something that stands for something else
All rituals had a symbolic element
Rituals are a formal activity that is recognizable
Rite of passage: how a child becomes an adult in a culture
Textbook definition: Ritual complexes associated with important changes in
personal status, such as birth, adolescence, marriage, and death.
Different in every culture
Often includes a difficult physical task
EB Tylor: Thought that religion was simply a belief in spirits
Magic: a form of ritual
Used to compel the supernatural to do what you want
Rules of magic:
oLaw of similarity: imitative magic
Ex: Hollywood voodoo doll
Includes iconic relationship between two objects
oLaw of contagion/contagious magic
Things that once were in contact remain in contact
Invisible connections
Lucky charms: rabbits foot
Associated with witchcraft
“Magic always works, except when it doesn’t” (because of rituals
done incorrectly, someone else with bigger magic, gods not
listening etc.)
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oThis is used as a way of explaining the use of magic in
many cultures
Witchcraft: Used to characterize religious rituals that cause harm to others
Wicca: non harmful witchcraft
Often something a person is born with
Sorcery: based on the ability to manipulate objects
Priests, Shamans: Different types of religious specialists
Priests are full time specialists vs. Shamans who conduct religious activities in
spare time
Shamans are responsible for physical health as well as psychiatry
Both positions usually held by men
Positions often acquired through family heritage
oEx: monarchy
Different forms of education to become religious specialist
oPriests are formally educated, Shamans are usually informally educated
Oracles: A person with higher power in a culture
Provide information about a specific problem
Objectivity of the specialist performing the oracle comes into question
Political Anthropology (Groups and politics)
Ascribed status: status acquired through lineage
Achieved status: status acquired through work
Power: the ability (usually by a leader) to force, convince, or persuade others to do what
they want using force
Influence: the ability to achieve a goal by convincing others to see things your way
Does not involve force and requires the ability to reach a consensus
Authority: the type of leadership in a society
Bands: oldest form of social group (foragers)
Small, egalitarian groups, usually made up of closely related kin
Based on people getting their basic needs fulfilled
Informal leadership system where everyone participates
Influence: must be able to convince people to do what you want
Tribes: foragers, horticulturalists, pastoralists
10-12000 years old
Often described as a group of bands with shared language, culture and territory
Manage wealth and land
Formal leaders
oPart time
oBuild consensus
oSocial family status mark you as a leader
oHave influence but no force/power
Larger descent groups – 500-500 people
Have reciprocity and redistribution
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