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ANTH 2160
D Rose

ANTHThe production of anthropological knowledge Historical OverviewAssociated with colonialism Victorian Era Anthro Attempted to establish anthro as a science informed by idea of evolution form natural history Charles Darwin informed by Enlightenment ideals of progress through rational inquiryoptimism that science would lead to the betterment of human kind strong Eurocentric concerned with the evolution of human societies Unilineal evolution human society always improved there are specific stages with identifiable traitseach stage must emerge from the one before European society the epitome of progress and perfection so far the more different a society is the lower they are presumed to be on the evolutionary scale Examples Spencerdivision of labour Lewis Henry MorganHad different ETHNICAL STAGESThere were 3 different scales for 1 Savagerylower middle high2 Barbarismand then there was 3 Civilization Criteria included subsistence technology family religionetc These ethnographers are considered ARMCHAIRthey looked at books and other information they did not go to view or interview the subjects they were writing about Fieldwork and anthroBronislaw Malinowski and participant observation Spend a long period of time living with the people you intend to write aboutLearn the language that the people speakParticipate as much as possible in the social lives of the people about whom you intend to write about Preparing for fieldwork select a topicFill a gap in the ethnographic mapRestudyAddress a theoretical question obtain Permissions and ethics clearanceContinues into the field experience itself obtain funding language travel arrangements and accommodation In the field establish rapport learn how to get around how to prepare foods how to ask questions methods Formal and informal interviewsFormal observationSurveysParticipant observationArchive and published literature EthnographyA detailed study of the social life and culture of one social groupj16 Background Victorian armchair anthro theories about cultural evolution diffusion VS independent invention static slice of time synchronic VS focus on change through time diachronic Boas Kwakiutl Malinowki trobriand islands later with his students in Africa colonialism and anthropologyBoas and Malinowkcritical to the changes and beginning of anthro Boas American associated with HISTORICAL PARTICULARISMtons of research is in Canada Malinowki British associated with FUNCTIONALISMReadings both articles address ideas about what anthropology is and what anthro should or could be and some of the types of concerns or questions raised continue today alone with new concernsEthicsArt or scienceRole of anthropologistImpartial observer or situated knowledgereflexivity Evolution simply means change through time doesnt have to mean change to something better at the time when he was practicing all of the other anthropologists were essentially his studentsColonial changedress religion daily life culture tax food medicine forced into wage labourMalinowskisays anthropology needs to figure out why and study colonialism culture and social changeStarted and made more prevalent APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY advocacy land claims developmentNeed to be involved not only as an academic but as a fieldworker applied anthropologistAnthropologist with new knowledge of the change could potentially make the transition easier research isnt objective everyone has their own interests beliefs ways of interacting Two researchers can observe the same thing but have completely different outcomes and results views of the same obsercations
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