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DEFINITIONS LIST 1220 exam 3.docx

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Art History
ARTH 2220
Susan Douglas

FINAL EXAM DEFINITIONS Abjection: - The heightened horror and vulnerability one feels when confronted with a dismembered limb or blood, semen, hair, vomit, and excrement outside the body, and hence no longer part of a whole (repulsion). - Concept formulated by Julia Kristeva (French philosopher and psychoanalyst) - Representations of mortal, suffering, wounded, grotesque bodies provoke repulsions among viewers (an abject reaction). Appropriation: - The act of borrowing, stealing or taking over others‟ works, images, words, meanings to one‟s own ends. - Process of borrowing and changing the meaning of commodities, cultural products, slogans, images, or elements of fashion by putting them into a new context or in juxtaposition with new elements. - One of the primary forms of oppositional production and reading, when, for instance, viewers take cultural products and reedit, rewrite, or change them, or change their meaning or use Avante-garde; - A term imported from military strategy (in which it indicated an expeditionary or scouting force that takes risks) into art history to describe movements at the forefront of artistic experimentation, leading the way toward major changes. - Often associated with modernism and formal innovation and is frequently contrasted with mainstream or traditional art that is conventional rather than challenging Biopower: - A term used by French philosopher Michel Foucault to describe the technologies or power through which modern states rely on institutional practices to regulate, subjugate, and control their human subjects. - Refers to the ways that power is enacted on a collective social body through the regulation and discipline of individual bodies in realms such as social hygiene, public health, education, demography, census taking and reproductive practices, among others. o These processes and practices produce particular kinds of knowledge about bodies and produce bodies with particular kinds of meaning and capacities o In Foucault‟s terms, all bodies are constructed through the many techniques of biopower Brand: - The naming and investment of meaning into companies or products in order to sell them as commodities - Began in the 19 century when products sold in bulk were given names, packaging, trademark symbols, and meanings (such as Quaker Oats). - Contemporary brands have highly complex meanings created through advertising, logos, and packaging, and it is now common to speak of brand identity, brand identification, and “love of the brand,” all of which demonstrate the depth of consumer relationships with brands Bricolage: - The practice of working with whatever materials are at hand, “making do” with what one has - Used by Dick Hebdige to refer to the activity of taking commodities and making them one‟s own by giving them new meaning o This has the potential to create resistant meanings out of commodities - The punk practice of wearing safety pins as body ornamentation is an example of bricolage - One origin of the term in cultural studies is derived from anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss in reference to how so-called primitive cultures differ in their process of meaning making from dominant colonial cultures Censorship: - The surpression of speech that someone finds distasteful, subversive, or dangerous - An extreme way that people wield power over language - Contemporary artists have made works that are designed to reveal the prejudice and intolerance behind acts of censorship o They have tested the limits of free speech through their own extreme expressions Conceptual Art: - A style of art that emerged in the 1960s that focused on the idea of concept over aesthetic qualities or the material object itself - An attempt to counter the increased commercialism of the art world, conceptual art presented ideas rather than artworks that could be bought and sold and thus worked to shift the focus to the creative process and away from the art market and its commodities - Artists who worked in conceptual art include: Joseph Kosuth, Hans Haacke, and Yoko Ono Cubism: - An early twentieth-century art movement beginning in 1907 that was part of the modern French avant-garde. - Began with collaboration between Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, who were both developing new ways of depicting space and objects - Cubism was a deliberate critique of the dominance of perspective in styles of art and an attempt to represent the dynamism and complexity of human vision by representing objects simultaneously from multiple perspectives Culture Jamming: - A metaphor for stopping the flow of spectacle long enough to adjust your set - “Detournement” o Rerouting of messages to create new meanings Deconstruction: - Looks at text or symbolic system in terms of the underlying worldview that gave rise to it, exposing contradictions and hidden biases in order to challenge the validity of the worldview as well as the text - Might involve the critical analysis of a message or image from alternative cultural or theoretical perspectives - Used by poststructuralists o Questioned the ingrained habit of “reading” texts, discourses, and visual representations as if they were authoritative sources with fixed, single meanings o Jacques Derrida  Meanings of texts are unstable because different viewers bring their own worldviews to their reading and looking, which skew interpretation Diaspora: - The existence of various communities, usually of a particular ethnicity, culture, or nation, scattered cross different places outside of their land of origin or homeland - There are large diasporic communities of South Asians living throughout England and the United Sates - Work in diasporic studies has stressed the complexity of such communities, who not only negotiate memory and nostalgia for original homelands but have the shared histories of migration, displacement, and hybrid identity of other local diaspora communities Encodiing: - In cultural consumption, the production of meaning in cultural products - Used by Stuart Hall to describe the work done by cultural producers in encoding cultural products (such as television shows, films, ads, etc.) with preferred meaning that will then be decoded by viewers o According to Hall, factors such as “frameworks of knowledge” (class status, cultural knowledge, and taste of the producers), “relations of production” (labour contexts of the production), and “technical infrastructure” (the technological context of the production) influence this process of encoding Episteme: - The ideas and ways of ordering knowledge that are taken as true and accurate in a given era - The term was used by Michel Foucault, in his book The Order of Things, to describe the dominant mode of organizing knowledge in a given period of history, the ground on which particular discourses can emerge in that time - Each period of history has a different episteme Feminist Art: - Art that reflected women‟s lives and experiences, as well as to change the foundation for the production and reception of contemporary art - Sought to bring more visibility to women within art history and art practice - Explored a liberated sexuality through a range of media, from painting and sculpture to photography, video, installation and performance o Women‟s sexual side had been repressed and unacknowledged - E.g. Judy Chicago‟s The Dinner Party (1974-1979) o Use of vulva designs on the plates to rescue the female body from Western male stereotypes o “Cunt terminology”  Resisting male voyeurism and asserting a female sexuality centered on female perception Futurism: - An Italian avant-garde movement that was inspired by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti‟s Futurist Manifesto, which was published in 1909 - The futurists were interesting in breaking free of tradition and embraced the idea of speed and the future o They wrote many manifestos and maintained a provocative and challenging style o Futurist painters like Giacomo Balla, focused on painting objects and people in motion, and others worked in cubist styles - Marinetti famously forged links between futurism and Italian fascism, but futurists could be found all along the political spectrum Gaze: - Term used to describe the relationship of looking in which the subject is caught up in dynamics of desire through trajectories of looking and being looked at among objects and other people o The gaze can be motivated by the subject‟s desire for control over the object it sees, and an object can likewise capture and hold the look o It is not something one performs, rather, it is a relation in which one is caught up - In traditional psychoanalytic theory, the gaze is intimately linked to fantasy o Updated by Jacques Lacan, who put the gaze at the center of his approach to how individuals enact desire o In cinema, the gaze of the spectator on the image was an implicitly male one that objectified the women on screen o Since the 1990s, theories of the gaze have complicated this original model and have introduced discussion of a variety of different kinds of gazes, for example, gazes distinguished by sex, gender, race and class - Michel Foucault uses the term to describe the relationship of objects within a network of power-and the mechanism of vision as a means of negotiating an conveying power within that network-in a given institutional context o Social institutions produce an inspecting, normalizing, or clinical gaze in which their subjects are caught and through which institutions keep track of their activities and thereby control and discipline them o The gaze is not something one has or uses, rather, it is a spatial and institutionally bound relationship into which one counters o There need not be a real subject who looks in order for the subject who is watched over to feel caught in the controlling gaze of an institution Global Village: - A term coined by Marshall McLuhan in the 1960s to refer to the ways that media can connect people from all over the world into geographically dispersed communities, giving the collective sense of a village to people that are separated geographically o Stated that the global village was created by instant electronic communication  “The global village is at once as wide as the planet and as small as the little town where everybody is maliciously engaged in poking his nose into everybody else‟s business. The global village is a world in which you don‟t necessarily have harmony; you have extreme concern with everybody‟s else‟s business and much involvement with everybody else‟s life o It is a term that describes both the contemporary frenzy of media events and the connections created by people over distances through communication technologies o The concept of a global village puts a cheery spin on globalization Hybridity: - A term referring to anything of mixed origins that has been used in contemporary theory to describe those people whose identities are derived simultaneously from many cultural origins, ethnicities, or sexualities - Used to describe diasporic cultures that are neither in one place nor the other but of many places Hyperreality: - Describes an inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from a simulation of reality, especially in technology advanced post-modern societies - Simulation replaces reproduction and representation o Jean Baudrillard - A way of characterizing what our consciousness defines as “real” in a world where a multitude of media can radically shape and filter an original event or experience - E.g. The McDonald‟s “M” arches make the material promise of endless amounts of identical food from the store, when in “reality” the “M” represents nothing, and the food produced is neither identical nor infinite, as a person would expect in a fast food restaurant - E.g. Disneyland Icon: - Originally, the term icon referred to a religious image that had sacred value - In contemporary meaning, an icon is an image (or person) that refers to something beyond its individual components, something (or someone) that acquires symbolic significance - Icons are often perceived to represent universal concepts, emotions and meanings Imperialism: - Derived from the word empire, it refers to the practices of nations that aim to extend their boundaries into new territories, dominating them through processes such as colonization - In Marxist theory, it is one of the means through which capitalism extends its power by creating both new markets to which it can sell its commodities and new labor forces that it can exploit to make those commodities at low cost - Cultural imperialism refers to how ways of life are exported into other territories through cultural products and popular culture o The U.S. is understood to routinely engage in cultural imperialism Interpellation: - Term coined by Marxis
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