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ARTH 2220 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Georges Braque, Wield, Manifesto Of Futurism


Department
Art History
Course Code
ARTH 2220
Professor
Susan Douglas
Study Guide
Midterm

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FINAL EXAM DEFINITIONS
Abjection:
- The heightened horror and vulnerability one feels when confronted with a dismembered limb or blood, semen, hair, vomit,
and excrement outside the body, and hence no longer part of a whole (repulsion).
- Concept formulated by Julia Kristeva (French philosopher and psychoanalyst)
- Representations of mortal, suffering, wounded, grotesque bodies provoke repulsions among viewers (an abject reaction).
Appropriation:
- The act of borrowing, stealing or taking over others‟ works, images, words, meanings to one‟s own ends.
- Process of borrowing and changing the meaning of commodities, cultural products, slogans, images, or elements of fashion
by putting them into a new context or in juxtaposition with new elements.
- One of the primary forms of oppositional production and reading, when, for instance, viewers take cultural products and
reedit, rewrite, or change them, or change their meaning or use
Avante-garde;
- A term imported from military strategy (in which it indicated an expeditionary or scouting force that takes risks) into art
history to describe movements at the forefront of artistic experimentation, leading the way toward major changes.
- Often associated with modernism and formal innovation and is frequently contrasted with mainstream or traditional art that is
conventional rather than challenging
Biopower:
- A term used by French philosopher Michel Foucault to describe the technologies or power through which modern states rely
on institutional practices to regulate, subjugate, and control their human subjects.
- Refers to the ways that power is enacted on a collective social body through the regulation and discipline of individual bodies
in realms such as social hygiene, public health, education, demography, census taking and reproductive practices, among
others.
o These processes and practices produce particular kinds of knowledge about bodies and produce bodies with
particular kinds of meaning and capacities
o In Foucault‟s terms, all bodies are constructed through the many techniques of biopower
Brand:
- The naming and investment of meaning into companies or products in order to sell them as commodities
- Began in the 19th century when products sold in bulk were given names, packaging, trademark symbols, and meanings (such
as Quaker Oats).
- Contemporary brands have highly complex meanings created through advertising, logos, and packaging, and it is now
common to speak of brand identity, brand identification, and “love of the brand,” all of which demonstrate the depth of
consumer relationships with brands
Bricolage:
- The practice of working with whatever materials are at hand, “making do” with what one has
- Used by Dick Hebdige to refer to the activity of taking commodities and making them one‟s own by giving them new
meaning
o This has the potential to create resistant meanings out of commodities
- The punk practice of wearing safety pins as body ornamentation is an example of bricolage
- One origin of the term in cultural studies is derived from anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss in reference to how so-called
primitive cultures differ in their process of meaning making from dominant colonial cultures
Censorship:
- The surpression of speech that someone finds distasteful, subversive, or dangerous
- An extreme way that people wield power over language
- Contemporary artists have made works that are designed to reveal the prejudice and intolerance behind acts of censorship
o They have tested the limits of free speech through their own extreme expressions
Conceptual Art:
- A style of art that emerged in the 1960s that focused on the idea of concept over aesthetic qualities or the material object
itself
- An attempt to counter the increased commercialism of the art world, conceptual art presented ideas rather than artworks that
could be bought and sold and thus worked to shift the focus to the creative process and away from the art market and its
commodities
- Artists who worked in conceptual art include: Joseph Kosuth, Hans Haacke, and Yoko Ono

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Cubism:
- An early twentieth-century art movement beginning in 1907 that was part of the modern French avant-garde.
- Began with collaboration between Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, who were both developing new ways of depicting
space and objects
- Cubism was a deliberate critique of the dominance of perspective in styles of art and an attempt to represent the dynamism
and complexity of human vision by representing objects simultaneously from multiple perspectives
Culture Jamming:
- A metaphor for stopping the flow of spectacle long enough to adjust your set
- “Detournement”
o Rerouting of messages to create new meanings
Deconstruction:
- Looks at text or symbolic system in terms of the underlying worldview that gave rise to it, exposing contradictions and
hidden biases in order to challenge the validity of the worldview as well as the text
- Might involve the critical analysis of a message or image from alternative cultural or theoretical perspectives
- Used by poststructuralists
o Questioned the ingrained habit of “reading” texts, discourses, and visual representations as if they were authoritative
sources with fixed, single meanings
o Jacques Derrida
Meanings of texts are unstable because different viewers bring their own worldviews to their reading and
looking, which skew interpretation
Diaspora:
- The existence of various communities, usually of a particular ethnicity, culture, or nation, scattered cross different places
outside of their land of origin or homeland
- There are large diasporic communities of South Asians living throughout England and the United Sates
- Work in diasporic studies has stressed the complexity of such communities, who not only negotiate memory and nostalgia for
original homelands but have the shared histories of migration, displacement, and hybrid identity of other local diaspora
communities
Encodiing:
- In cultural consumption, the production of meaning in cultural products
- Used by Stuart Hall to describe the work done by cultural producers in encoding cultural products (such as television shows,
films, ads, etc.) with preferred meaning that will then be decoded by viewers
o According to Hall, factors such as “frameworks of knowledge” (class status, cultural knowledge, and taste of the
producers), “relations of production” (labour contexts of the production), and “technical infrastructure” (the
technological context of the production) influence this process of encoding
Episteme:
- The ideas and ways of ordering knowledge that are taken as true and accurate in a given era
- The term was used by Michel Foucault, in his book The Order of Things, to describe the dominant mode of organizing
knowledge in a given period of history, the ground on which particular discourses can emerge in that time
- Each period of history has a different episteme
Feminist Art:
- Art that reflected women‟s lives and experiences, as well as to change the foundation for the production and reception of
contemporary art
- Sought to bring more visibility to women within art history and art practice
- Explored a liberated sexuality through a range of media, from painting and sculpture to photography, video, installation and
performance
o Women‟s sexual side had been repressed and unacknowledged
- E.g. Judy Chicago‟s The Dinner Party (1974-1979)
o Use of vulva designs on the plates to rescue the female body from Western male stereotypes
o “Cunt terminology”
Resisting male voyeurism and asserting a female sexuality centered on female perception
Futurism:
- An Italian avant-garde movement that was inspired by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti‟s Futurist Manifesto, which was
published in 1909
- The futurists were interesting in breaking free of tradition and embraced the idea of speed and the future
o They wrote many manifestos and maintained a provocative and challenging style
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