BIOC 2580 Study Guide - Furanose, Nucleoside, Heterocyclic Compound

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Bioc 2580 final exam notes: nucleic acids. Linear polymers of nucleotides connected via phosphodiester bonds: nucleotide: repeating unit consisting of sugar, base and phosphate group. 2 types of nucleic acid sugars: ribose, deoxyribose. 4 different bases: cytosine, thymine (uracil), adenine, guanine. Pyrimidine bases: single ring bases, cytosine, thymine (5-methyluracil) and uracil (rna) Tautomers: isomers which differ only in positions of protons (and double bonds) Skeleton remains unchanged: nucleotide bases can exists in 2 or more tautomeric forms depending on ph. Tautomeric forms of cytosine: oh group undergoes keto/enol tautomerism, nh2 group undergoes amino/imino tautomerism amino + keto form predominates (middle) Sugars: rna contains d-ribose, dna contains d-2-deoxyribose. Oh on c-2 is replaced with an h: both sugars are in furanose (5 membered) form. Special kind of glycoside found in nucleic acids. Add prime superscript to distinguish positions of sugar. Purines bond n9, pyrimidine bond n1 to anomeric c of sugar. Nucleotides: nucleotide: base + sugar + phosphate.

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