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Final

BIOC 2580 Study Guide - Final Guide: Transesterification, Glycogen, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide


Department
Biochemistry
Course Code
BIOC 2580
Professor
Steffen Graether
Study Guide
Final

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Biochem Final Notes- Second half of course
Carboxylic acids can combine with alcohols to form esters
Carboxylic acids can combine with acids to form acid anhydrides
Triacylglycerols- majority of fatty acids in biological systems are found in the form
of Triacylglycerols
Each alcohol group of glycerol forms an ester linkage with a fatty acid to form Tag
Storage fat
Highly hydrophobic
Saturated= higher melting temperature, lower solubility
Phosphate derivatives
Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is a triprotic acid, Pi denotes H2PO4- and HPO42- equilibrium
Phosphorylation adds negative charges to molecules and increases in water solubility, e.g.
phospholipids, DNA, RNA and many proteins
Phosphoric acid can react with alcohols and acids to form phosphate esters and
phosphoannhyrides
Phosphoglycerides-
Primary constituents of biological membranes
Carbon atoms 1 and 2 of glycerol are esterified to two fatty acids (tail)
Highly polar or charged group attached though a phosphodiester linkage to the head
Amphipathic- like water and hate water

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Analysis of
Lipids
Two phase
extraction
a) Hom
ogenized in
chloroform, methanol, water
b) Absorption chromatography or thin layer
c)
Trans esterification d)
Gas
liquid chromatography or high performance liquid chromatography
Allows
them to form lipid bilayers
Sugars
Poly is 20 or more sugar subunits
Monosaccharides:
1) Carbonyl (C=O) group which is either an aldehyde or ketone
2) Two C atoms bearing hydroxyl groups
Very water soluble, porrly soluble in organic solvents such as ether or hexane
Colorless
Sweet
(CH2O)n
simplest sugars contain 3 carbons, trioses
most common are hexoses (D-glucose, D-fructose_
Enantiomers- mirror images
D and L, commonly called the left handed and right handed forms of a molecule
Have identical chemical properties
Physical property difference- rotate the plane of plane-polarized light in opposite
directions
Diastereomers- more than one chiral carbon atoms have stereoisomers, do not have
identical chemical properties
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