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Bio – Summary of all Lectures.docx

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BIOL 1050
Steve Bowley

Bio – Summary of all Lectures - stuff from the textbook that wasn't mentioned in class is NOT on the midterm - some answers may be partially correct but one will be CORRECT - SAMPLE QUESTIONS: - True or false? - •Tomatoes are a cold season crop (F)
• Cabbage is a cold season crop (T)
 • Apples are wind pollinated (F)
•The nuclei in a pollen tube are haploid (T)
 •A rhizome is an underground stem (T)
 •The radicle is the seedling shoot (F)
 - • Which answer is NOT correct? - •A)
 Monecious plants have staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant.
 Asparagus an example is a monecious plant •C)
 Complete flowers contain stamens and pistils •D)
 Monocots have 3 petals - •E)
 Trillium is an example of a Monocot - •A scutellum is - •A)
 the seedling root of a Dicot plant•B)
 the seedling shoot of a Dicot plant•C)
 the covering of the seedling root of a Monocot plant •D)
 the cotyledon of a Monocot plant•E)
 none of the answers is correct Plant Reproduction Lecture 1: September 9 , 2013 - 2 classes: angiosperms (covered seeds) and gymnosperms (conifers) - Spermatophyte = plant with seed - Kingdom  class  subclasses  order  family  genus  species - “King Charles sends out for guys spontaneously” - Complete flower have both male and female reproductive parts in a single flower - Flower: produce gametes (sex cells), attract gametes (pollen), nourishes embryos and develops seeds and fruits - Seed: embryo and nutrient source surrounded by a protective coat - Fruits: develop from the flower’s seed producing organ (receptacle) and contain seeds - Receptacle: where the flower attaches to the stem - Stamen consists of a pollen-topped anther, attached to a filament - Carpel has a long style topped with a stigma, on which pollen may land - Ovary at the base of the style with 1+ ovule - Single or group of fused carpels is called a pistil - Plants: characterized by alt. of generation (multicellular haploid (n) and multicellular diploid (2n) - Diploid sporophytes (2n) produce spores (n) through meiosis, which grow into haploid gametophytes (n) - Life cycle is classified by the three F’s: Flowers, double fertilization, and fruits - Inflorescences: clusters of flowers  QueenAnne’s Lace - - - - - - - - - - - - - Pollination: transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma - Can be via wind, water, animals Lecture 2: Pollination and seed development - Of the major fruit crops, only grapes are wind pollinated - Hay fever is caused from the release of large amounts of pollen by wind pollinators - Flowers pollinated by animals have brightly coloured flowers and attractive scents/nectar to attract pollinators - Insects see UV light/colours we can’t - Coevolution: evolution of interacting species in response to each other changing - Plants coevolving with specific pollinators, ex. Moth with 28 cm long tongue based on a flower - Double fertilization: discharge of two sperm from pollen tube to embryo sac - One sperm fertilizes the egg, the other fertilizes the 2 polar nuclei which establishes the food-storing endosperm (3n) - Pollen tube grows toward micropyle, attracted by chemicals in the synergid cells - One synergid cell dies, leaving room for the sperm cells to enter - Advantages to double fert: prevents formation of endosperm if zygote isn’t fertilized, prevents plant from using resources on a non-fertile seed - Increase in Ca ions in the egg prevents polyspermy - After double fert., each ovule develops into a seed - Endosperm development usually precedes embryo development - In most monocots and some eudicots, endosperm stores nutrients to be used by seedling - In other eudicots, food reserves of endosperm are exported to cotyledons - Nutrients are in the form of starch or oils - First mitotic division of zygote splits the fertilized egg into a basal cell and a terminal cell - Basal cell: produces a multicellular suspensor to anchor the embryo to the parent plant - Terminal cell: gives rise to most of the embryo - Cotyledons form and embryo elongates - True plants: have chlorophyll (are autotrophic), are capable of storing starch and have cellulose in cell walls - Classification o Monocotyledoneae: seed has a single cotyledon, flower parts in 3’s, primary root replaced by fibrous roots, leaves have veins in parallel o Dicotyledoneae: seed has 2 cotyledons, flower parts in 4’s or 5’s, primary root usually persistent, herbaceous or woody growth, leaves with net veins - Classifications important for crop rotation, herbicide selectivity, identification Lecture 3: Continuation of Pollination and seed development - Seed enters a state of dormancy  increases chances that germination will occur at optimal time/place, breaking often requires environmental cues (temp/lighting/rain) - - Grasses have a special cotyledon called a scutellum - Spinach and celery don’t have a state of dormancy - Seed germination and seedling development: germination depends on water uptake o Radicle (embryonic root) emerges first o Shoot tip breaks the soil surface - Monocots: cotyledon emerges first, frost/herbicide won’t kill the growing point (meristem region) - Dicots: damage to the hook will kill the plant - Physical or physiological dormancy - physical dormancy – germination dependant on seeds absorbing water; can be dependant by weathering or action of a microorganism - physiological dormancy – immature embryo; seed may look ripe but embryo on the inside may not be fully formed, eg. Holly - chemicals that inhibit germination may be present in the fruit, or chemicals to promote germination must develop - Stratification: period of cold/warm temps required to break dormancy Self/cross fertilization: - Without the fusion of gametes - Advantage for a crop like wheat: can save their seed and it will be guaranteed to be the same as the previous year - Not as good with tomato plants because they’re bred as hybrids, won’t guarantee the same tomato for the next generation - Separate flowers to prevent self-F - Mechanisms to prevent self-f: o Dioecious: species have stamen and carpel flowers on two separate plants, ex.Asparagus o Monecious: species have separate male and female flowers on the same plant ex. Corn o Timing: anthers develop at a different time than stigmas are receptive o Cucumbers/pumpkins: male flowers develop first o Self-incompatibility: plant’s ability to reject own pollen Fruit form/function: - protects enclosed seed, aids in seed dispersal - Fruit changes colour over time (important for attracting animals to eat/disperse) - Many have colour/high sugar content correlating to ripeness and maturity of seed - Simple fruit: pea pod, has developed from several ovules in a single fruit - Aggregate, a single flower with multiple separate carpels - Multiple: group of flowers called an inflorescence - Accessory fruit: contains other floral parts in addition to ovary ex. apples - Each “seed” on a strawberry fruit is a fruit Lecture 4: seed dispersal and vegetative propagation - plants sense gravity with dense starch grains in the cells of root caps called statoliths - coconut seeds are made to float in the ocean, large in order to store nutrients and survive on beaches - Humans exploit plants, but plants have been effective in exploiting humans for increase and dispersal - Vegetative reproduction (asexual reproduction): o Can be beneficial to a successful plant in a stable environment o Clone of plants is vulnerable to local extinction if there is an enviro. Change o Have specialized structures: callus (tissue culture), plantlets, shoots for grafting, bulbs, etc. - Apopmoxis: asexual reproduction of seeds from a diploid cell (2n); may be a megasporocyte that didn’t undergo meiosis or another ovary cell - Parthenogenesis: production of fruit w/o fertilization of the ovule o Seedless species are more for agricultural purposes o Bananas do not have viable seeds; have been vegetatively propagated for thousands of years (when bananas are ripe, will cut down the shot and let the plant repropagate) o Bananas are a natural hybrid of a 2n and 4n plant to produce a 3n plant - Stenospermocary: fruit is pollenated but embryo dies (seedless watermelon) - Many kinds of plants are asexually reproduced from plant fragments (cuttings) - Callus: mass of dividing undifferentiated cells that forms where a stem is cut and produces roots o Ex. Sweet potato roots produce shoots which are cut and placed in the ground - Grafting o Twig/bud can be grafted onto a plant of a closely related species/variety o Stock provides the root o the scion is grafted onto the stock o examples commercial apple trees, many grown on dwarf root stocks, also good for disease resistance - Bulbs: storage organs composed of shortened stems with thick fleshy leaves - Stolon: stems used in v. reproduction and propagation, stem originating from another stem, used to bulk commercial plants - Corms: solid stems that have nodes and internodes, over the season, energy from the past is used to produced current plant - Hybridization: uniting parent plants, encourages genetic diversity, scientists have used bacterium to transfer genetic material between organisms Lecture 5: plant breeding, global warming and climate change - Artichokes: Choose the best 5% of plants from the group, allow to cross, grow, and select again. Separate by distance or enclose in netting to prevent out crossing - “true to type” – easy to save seed, plants in the next year are dependent and likely to be the same as previous year - Interspecific crosses (2 species, often the same genus) o Brassica oleracea (cauliflower/broccoli) and B. rapa crossed to create a new plant (B. napus) - Technology/plant breeding: o Can be crosses through more diverse plants, incl. crosses through genera o If genetics are too different, endosperm may not be fertilized o Embryo rescue- embryo may form but not the endosperm o Double haploids- take the haploid egg an culture to double the chromosome, embryo is then fertile and can grow/reproduce o GMO’s- bacterium used to transfer DNAfrom 1 organism to another - Test-tube cloning and related techniques: o In vitro methods to create/clone novel plant varieties o Callus is subject to different hormones, will produce roots and shoots on a petri dish o Meristem tissue culture- taking cells from the meristem (dividing portion of the plate) o Portion is grown in a plate o If plant cells divide faster than virus cells, plant cells can be taken out and allowed to regenerate o People didn’t realise garlic had viruses, when meristem tissue culture plant cells were grown, they were found to be much larger o Though it took longer, larger yield and more profit CLIMATE CHANGE - Polar ice cap is melting even faster than earlier predicted - Ice and snow reflect heat, when there is less ice, dark water absorbs heat which further increases the rate of warming - Global warming is a more accurate term, climate is always changing - Climate: long term averages of various environmental parameters, esp. temp and rainfall - Weather: short term events such as daily/weekly min/max temp/rainfall - Climate is usually a 30 year time frame, 1950-1980 is often the norms - TIME FRAME IS ESSENTIAL Lecture 7: Global Warming conclusion - Hot days defined as 30°C or higher max temp - Correlation: measures the intensity of an association between 2 variables, if this is stronger than chance alone, r value closer to +/-1 2eans there is a perfect relationship - Regression analysis: the r value indicates how much variation in the dependent v. is predicted by the indep. var. (1.0=100% or all variation) - P value indicates if the value is significant, has to be below 0.05 for relationship to be significant - Most important point from Yield of cabbage experiment: high nitrogen and optimum soil moisture could not have prevented yield losses due to high temps - Global warming and veg. crops: o Cabbage is a cool season crop, so expected to suffer more from high temps o Soybeans and maize are warm season crops, but even warm season crop shave temp. limits o Tomato also grow best between 21 and 29C, high temps cause flowers to abort - Adaptation to global warming: o Diversify crops (4+) o Drought resistant crops and varieties- selection/breeding, observation o Irrigation o Mulches conserve moisture and keep soil cooler o Compost – more organic material in soil = more moisture holding capability o Much more research on stress tolerance in field crops than in veg. crops - Reduce emissions: o Protect forests o Ghana is doing lots to adapt/reduce climate change - Likely to endure more: o Variability in weather o Hot days (decreased growth and yield) o Demand on water sources o Heat-related disorders in vegetables o Loss due to insect pests Lecture 8: Colony collapse disorder and bee decline - Vine crops depend on insects for pollination - Honey bees – queen bee is the only female that reproduces, worker bees are female bees with many functions, drones are male bees who fertilize the queen - Colony collapse: hives found with eggs and larvae but no/few worker bees - Bee decline (Canada): many hives die over the winter - Possible causes: o Erratic weather,
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