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Bio Notes.docx

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1070
T.Ryan Gregory

Inquiry Case 1 – Zebra Mussels Zebra mussel = Dreissena polymorpha Diversity - refers to the number of different species in a taxonomic group or a geographical area Byssal threads: ―silky‖ threads that are used by mussels to latch onto rocks, or submerged pillars etc. Recruitment - production of the next generation Morphology – changes/differences in physical traits. Can be due to either genetics, or adaptations to the surrounding environment (―phenotypic plasticity‖)  Ex: differences in mussels of the same species inhabiting fast vs. slow running water.  Sometimes there can be very little morphological variation, but a significant amount of genetic variation  Ex: mammals are not very diverse but they are very disparate — consider shrews vs. bats vs. giraffes vs. blue whales. Bivalve mollusks, though much more diverse than mammals, are not as disparate — on the whole, they all maintain a relatively similar morphology. Convergent Evolution (AKA Homoplasy) - describes the acquisition of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages.  Ex: The wing is a classic example of convergent evolution in action. Flying insects, birds, and bats have all evolved the capacity of flight independently. They have "converged" on this useful trait.  Traits arising through convergent evolution are termed analogous structures Homology – similarities among species due to sharing a common ancestor  Traits arising through a common ancestor are termed homologous structures  Eyes of humans and eyes of cats. The ancestor of mammals had eyes, and we and cats both inherited eyes from a shared ancestor. So, eyes are homologous among mammals. Clade -A clade is a group of organisms that includes a common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor. On a phylogenetic tree, you must be able to make only one ―cut‖ on the tree for it to be a cla.e Disparity – Refers to how morphologically different species are from each other (for example, mammals are very disparate -- think about a shrew vs. a blue whale). Variation - refers to differences among individual organisms within a population or species. It might be genetic variation, or phenotypic variation. Ontogeny - the origin and the development of an organism  Ex: from the fertilized egg to mature form Conspecifics - Two or more individual organisms, populations, or taxa are conspecific
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