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1070 exam review

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1070
Wright& Newmaster

• acute = minutes to hours • chronic = days to weeks • generational = multiple generations (up to thousands) • arctic plants have been around for 1000s of years, how do they life through all these 3 changes? • is animal unicellular or multicellular • endotherm (temp regulated from inside) or ectotherm (outside temperature decides internal temp) • any behavioural changes: ○ posture changes ○ hibernation • Acute responses to (ie. 5 C T. change) • metabolic rate increases • Chronic • physiological response - acclimatization to new thermal regime • population range changes • changes internal seasonal enzyme changes • Generational • • Is only for chronic changes • Ranges on tolerance have "lower lethal T." and "upper lethal T." • Remember, "adapt" has NOTHING to do with acclimatization • moulting - shedding coats for winter/summer coat • Some animals, as blood goes from artery to vein, the T. drops and at turning point is just above 0 and then goes up again • hence birds can stand on ice and not lose a lot of heat • homeoviscous adaptation = maintaining relatively constant membrane fluidity regardless of tissue T. • At minimum, a plant needs, water, light, CO2, N, P and K • The sunlight in the arctic has HIGH UV and short growing season • Some plants encountering a low nutrient season, it catches insects and eats them • Lichen = algae + fungus • algae provide the carbs since they can photosynthesise • fungus utilizes low amounts of nitrogen ○ extract moistures ○ desiccant (dryness) and freeze tolerant that protects • Bears are forced for 4-5 months to the shore because the ice melts completely in the Hudson Bay sea • Larger animals have inefficient material exchange mechanisms with the environment but lower overall metabolism and lose heat slower • Q10 = (rate at T.)/(rate at T.-10) • most fall under 2 and 3 (double/triple with each 10 degree drop in T.) • if = 1, therefore, that rxn is not T. sensitive • Hibernation - heat drops 10 fold, burn stored white fat (la gente blanca duermen, no hacen nada) • during arousal waking up process - burn brown fat (la gente marron trabajan siempre) ○ brown fat's mitochondria's active ingredient is thermogenin which has 10 times the power as white fat that super charges to arouses the animal • hibernaculum = the den • lemmings will burrow under snow blankets over the winter and reproduce in the snowy timeframe  Conformers = allow internal environments to follow external changes  linear relationship on graph  Regulators = maintain constant internal environments in the face of varying environment conditions  if you graph, you'll have malfunctioning zones on the extremes (ie. if T. is too high, will crack under pressure and if too low, won't bother to regulate for first few degrees and then regulation will kick in)  You CAN be a conformer for some aspects (ie. ion [ ]) but not for others (ie. T.)  Heterothermy = endothermic at certain times on in certain tissues but not at all times or in all tissues  ie. hibernation  Some fish may be 10 C warmer in SOME body tissues than their environment, like the tuna or swordfish  done so they can swim faster (higher T. = faster fish)  do it by using countercurrents in veins and arteries that are lined up really close to each other o this somehow keeps a warm core and warm muscles  O 2onsumption is constant for a certain range and then increases on either end of the extremes (ovs. to cool off and to warm back up)  Bergmann's Rule = for endotherms, body size INCREASES as the living habitat T. DROPS  higher heat production to heat loss ratio  the smaller ones (ie. mice) will have to hibernate  Fish find it easier to live in cold waters because 2 solubility increases as T. drops  Arctic actotherms are dumbed down because of slow metabolism = easy food for endotherms  Polar bears has thick fur, blubber layer, large size ratio, hair reflects visible light but transmit near- infrared to dark skin, hairs are hollow shafted and trap hear emitted from the skin  heat vision will snipe the African elephant but the polar bear will be a ghost at a distance  since their hairs are hollow shafted, the zoo algae grow in them and that's why it look like a
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