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BIOL 1070
David Dyck

Biology 1080: Final Exam Notes Hormones and the Endocrine System - Growth spurt = hormone driven - Many people take and use hormones for many reasons (i.e.: birth control) - What do Hormones do in the Body? o Modulate:  Growth and development  Homeostasis  Reproduction o Affect many other things in the physiome including aspects of the CCN  Immunity and neurodevelopment o Have chemical structural similarities o Each has specific receptor Types of Hormones - Growth Hormone (GH) o Hypothalamus  Anterior Pituitary Gland  GH sent to: liver, bone, muscle, skeleton - Oxytocin (OT) o Suckling infant stimulates nerve receptors in the nipple o Resulting impulses travel along nerves to the hypothalamus o Hypothalamus signals posterior pituitary to release OT o OT travels via bloodstream to mammary gland o Breast ejects milk (lactation) Where do Hormones Come From? 1. Endocrine Glands 2. Organs that produce hormones as secondary function a. i.e.: kidney and liver How does the Nervous System interact with the Endocrine System- to form the foundation of the CCN * from the organ to person level? - Some nerves release hormones directly into the bloodstream (neurohormones). - All primary endocrine glands and secondary endocrine tissue are innervated by neurons of the autonomic nervous system. Nerve signals, via local neurotransmitter release, can modulate hormone secretion. - Neurons in the CNS and PNS- along with astrocytes in the CNS and astrocyte-like cells in the PNS- have receptors for many hormones. Hormones of the Pancreas - Has endocrine and exocrine function - Diseases of the pancreas: pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer Single Organ Hormone Axis - Alpha cell: secretes glucagon o Controls blood glucose homeostasis - Beta cell: secretes insulin - Delta cell: secretes somatostatin - Exocrine pancreas: acinar cells and duct cells 1 o All else is endocrine - F cell: secretes pancreatic polypeptide Multi-Organ Hormone Axis Hormones of the Pituitary Gland - Neuro endocrine - Both have outflow of blood and hormones 2 Homeostasis ~ Blood Calcium and Blood Glucose Steroids - Can’t use in sports - Alcohol is banned in archery - Causes a shit tonne of bad things to your body- including pancreatitis - Is very very bad for you, don’t do them! Local Support and Defense System - Nonspecific Defense/ Innate Immune System o (1) Nonspecific physical and chemical surface barriers o If pathogen penetrates?  (2) Nonspecific internal cellular and chemical defense  If pathogen survives nonspecific internal defense?  (3) Specific defense/Adaptive Immune System: immune response 3 First Line of Physical Defense - Epithelial barriers - Washing away pathogens- leaving behind human microbiome - Tears o Wash away substances o Kills many bacteria - Saliva o Washes away microbes from teeth and mouth - Skin o Provides physical barrier to entrance of body o Acidic pH discourages growth of organisms o Sweat and oil secretions kill bacteria - Respiratory Tract o Mucus traps organisms o Cilia sweep away trapped organisms - Stomach o Acid kills organisms - Large Intestine o Normal bacteria inhabitants keep invaders in check - Bladder o Urine washes away microbes from urethra Second Line of Physical Defense~ Resident Cells and Proteins - Defensive Cells o Engulf invading organisms/phagocytosis o Kill parasites o i.e.: phagocytic cells - Defensive Proteins o Slow spread of viruses o Promotes phagocytosis o Kills bacteria o Enhances inflammation o Lysis by complement  (1) activated complement proteins form holes in cell wall and membrane of bacterium  (2) bacterium no longer maintains constant internal environment as water enters  (3) bacterium bursts - Inflammation o Brings in defensive cells o Speed healing o If area is pricked, like a thorn  Complement destroys bacteria  Phagocytes engulf bacteria o 4 Cardinal Stages  (1) Redness: blood flow carries defense cells/chemicals to damaged tissue.  (2) Heat: increases metabolic rate of cells in injured area- speeds healing.  (3) Swelling: fluid seeps into injured area- has clotting factors, nutrients, etc. 4  (4) Pain: hampers movement- allows area to heal. - Fever o Slows growth of bacteria o Speeds up body defenses o FUO: fever of unidentified origin What’s the Local Support and Defense System? - 4 component of CCN - Maintenance and Support System - Adaptation and Repair System - Resident Defense System - Migrant Defense System Parenchymal Cells of Glands and Organs - Most prominent cell type, in terms of function and mass - Critical “functional” portion of gland or organ - Traditionally: o a bunch of different names and kinds in every organ and gland o liver- hepatocyte o skin- keratinocyte o heart- cardiomyocyte o brain- neurons Non-Parenchymal Cells in Tissues/Organs form the Basic Logic Unit of the Local Support and Defense System - Afferent and efferent nerve endings - Capillary endothelial cells - Support and defense cells of lymphoid and myeloid origin - Stem cells - Called stroma in peripheral organs o Traditionally supports functional portion of gland or organ Pancreas and the Local Support and Defense System - Pancreatic Exocrine: secretions exit here o Digestive enzymes - Pancreatic endocrine secretions go into the blood (insulin, glucagon) Blood - Red blood cells transport oxygen - White blood cells defend the body against disease o During infection: the number of white blood cells increases dramatically - Platelets are cell fragments essential to blood clotting - Composition o 55% plasma o 45% red + white blood cells and platelets Continuous Production and Movement of Cells into the Blood - Stem cells are undifferentiated cells in the red bone marrow that give rise to all the formed elements - Stem cells divide and become specialized 5 - Mature formed elements are specialized for specific functions Blood Cells and Migration 1. White blood cells exit a capillary by squeezing between the cells of the vessel walls and migrate into tissue 2. Red blood cells and platelets do not migrate into tissues they stay in the capillary “tubes” 3. Support: self (MHC) marker labels the body’s cells as self or “friend” 4. Attack: a. Antigen is a molecule, often on the surface of a pathogen, that the immune system recognizes as a specific “foe” b. Threat! i. An invader enters the body. c. Detection! i. Macrophage encounters (places piece of the invader on its surface with the self MHC marker), engulfs, and digests the invader. d. Alert! i. Macrophage presents the antigen to a helper T cell and secretes a chemical (cytokine) that activates the helper T cells ii. Antibody mediated response: naïve B cell iii. Cell-mediated response: naïve cytotoxic T cell Antibody-Based Immunity (B Lymphocyte) Cell-Based Immunity (T Lymphocyte) Plasma Cell= Effector cytotoxin b-cell Antibodies = proteins which bind to antigens Effector Cytotoxic T Cell= kills by a variety of mechanisms 6 Q: after the carnage is over, and the debris cleaned up and the local cells repaired… what’s left in the tissue, in the bone marrow and in the thymus? A: Memory~ in the form of Memory Helper T Cells, the Memory Cytotoxic T Cells and the Memory B Cells populations… and in the form of sensory (interoceptive) memory in the CNS. The brain is acutely aware through all this, and learns/remembers the battle… Memory in T cells and B cells… Components of Cardiovascular-Lymphatic System 1. Fluids a. Blood b. Lymph c. Cerebrospinal fluid d. Extracellular fluid 7 2. Vessels a. Blood vessels b. Lymph vessels c. Cerebrospinal fluid vessels 3. Organs a. Heart b. Kidney c. Spleen, thymus, tonsils d. Lymph nodes 4. Innervation a. Sympathetic b. Parasympathetic c. Sensory 5. Stem Cell Pool a. Bone marrow b. Other Coagulation Disorders - Injured cells in the walls of the vessels and platelets release clotting factors - Clotting factors convert an inactive blood protein to prothrombin activator - Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin - Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin - The fibrin network traps red blood cells and platelets, forming a blood clot Blood Vessels Conduct the Blood in Continuous Loops 1. Vein a. Inner layer: endothellum b. Middle layer: smooth muscle and elastic fibres c. Outer layer: connective tissue 2. Artery a. Inner layer: endothelium b. Middle layer: smooth muscle and elastic fibres c. Outer layer: connective tissue 3. Venule a. Valve b. Connective tissue c. Endothelium 4. Arteriole a. Smooth muscle b. Endothelium 5. Capillary a. Endothelium b. Lumen Blood in the Body - 60% systemic veins and venules - 15% systemic arteries and arterioles - 12% pulmonary blood vessels - 8% heart and 5% capillaries 8 Blood Flow~ General Circuit Blood Flow~ Continuous Loops in Parallel Blood Vessel Characteristics Type Average Internal Average Wall Thickness Special Features Diameter (mm) (mm) Artery 4.0 1.0 Muscular, highly elastic Arteriole 0.03 0.006 Muscular, well innervated Capillary 0.008 0.0005 Thin-walled, highly permeable Venule 0.02 0.001 Thin-walled, some smooth muscle Vein 5.0 0.5 Thin-walled (compared to arteries), fairly muscular, highly distensible **Lymphatic Vessels collect material from the extracellular fluid at capillary beds and form Lymph! And move Lymph back to the major veins of the blood system- the lymphatic system in not a continuous loop. ~~ Cerebrospinal fluid drains back into the CNS circulation and into the lymphatic system at various points outside the brain Arterioles: main site of blood flow and blood pressure regulation Capillaries: nutrient, waste, fluid exchange at local level Venules: main site of lymphocyte crossing from blood to lymph nodes Sphincter relax = blood flows in Sphincter contract = blood is channeled through the capillary bed 9 Blood vessels differ by velocity and surface area ~ high velocity and small surface area = direct, rapid conductance of blood ~ low velocity and large surface area = optimal exchange Blood Vessels ~ Veins - Valve closed o Skeletal muscles relax and blood fills the valves and closes them o Relaxed calf muscles - Valve open o Muscle contraction squeezes the vein, pushing blood through the open valve toward the heart o Valve closed o Contracted calf muscles Circulatory System Network Analysis - Heart: pump blood - Kidney: filter and adjust volume + content of blood plasma, indirectly control blood pressure - Spleen: filter and remove old red cell + platelets, site of maturation of white blood cells - Thymus: site of maturation of white blood cells, site of antigen presentation and memory formation in B cell populations - Tonsils: (4 types) site of storage and maturation of white blood cells - Slowly remove each organ? Ewww… o Cardiectomy: need a pump o Nephrectomy: only need one kidney to function o Splenectomy: spleen gone = response system impaired o Tonsillectomy: not bad Heart as a Muscular Pump - Made of cardiac muscle tissue = myocardium - Neural input: involuntary, autonomic - Neural conduction: gap junctions… very fact, contract as a unit, no fibre recruitment like skeletal muscle - Metabolism: very high oxidative capacity (lots of mitochondria)… fatigue resistant - Right Side of the Heart o 1, 3 o Pulmonary circuit o Contains blood rich in carbon dioxide o Returns from the tissues o Flows out to the lungs - Left Side of the Heart o 2, 4 o Systemic circuit o Contains blood rich in oxygen o Returns from the lungs o Flows out to the tissues - Aortic valve: between left ventricle and aorta - Mitral valve: between left atria and ventricle - In total… o 4 chambers o 2 atria; 2 ventricles 10 Heart~ Controlling Direction of Blood Flow with Valves - “Lub” enter atria o Tricuspid, mitral o Atrioventricular valves (AV) are located between each atrium and ventricle - “Dub” leaves ventricles o Pulmonary, aortic o Semilunar valves are located between each ventricle and its artery Artificial Heart Valves - Lasts 20+ years - Requires consistent anticoagulant therapy: blood thinner - Xenograph valve: need to be put on immunosuppressive drugs so body doesn’t reject it Cardiac Cycle - Contraction of atria - Followed by contraction of ventricles - Followed by rest when neither chamber is contracting - Contraction = systole - Relaxation = diastole - The Cycle o Early Diastole  Atria and ventricles are relaxed and fill passively o Later Diastole  Ventricles are still relaxing and filling passively o Atrial Systole  Both atria contract and force blood into ventricles o Ventricular Systole  Both ventricles contract  Right ventricle forces blood into pulmonary trunk  Left ventricle forces blood into the aorta Enlarged Heart Muscle - Hyperthropy ~ becomes bigger - Sign of being overworked - Bad o High blood pressure o Narrowing of aortic valve - Good o Athletes heart o Endurance athletes and weightlifters Conductance through the Heart - Electrical signal propagated by: o Nodes o Nerves o Intercalated discs - Miscommunication = arrhythmia (quite common) 11 Controlling the Heart’s Contractions - Nervous and endocrine signals control the strength and rate of contraction of the heart o i.e.: rest to exercise - Sympathetic Innervation (NE): increase heart rate - Parasympathetic Innervation (ACh): decrease heart rate - Epinephrine: increase strength of each contraction Blood Supply to the Heart - Arteries to the hard working muscle - Blockage of one of the major coronary arteries leads to a typical heart attack Cardiovascular Disease - Atherosclerosis o Narrowing of arteries o Fatty deposits (plaque) thicken the wall of arteries o Can lead to heart attack/stroke o When in heart = coronary artery disease o Factors: age, genetics, diet, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity/diabetes - Solution 1: Angioplasty o Balloon the shit out of it! - Solution 2: Atherectomy o Laser away plaque o Temporary fix - Solution 3: Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) o Not open heart surgery o Sometimes use brachial artery - Can you die from a broken heart? Takosubo cardiomyopathy - Scar tissue remains o Prevention  Red heart pill  Cardio-poly pill o Low dose aspirin o 1/3 dose of 3 types of blood pressure lowering drugs Gastrointestinal Tract - 6 muscular sphincters, segregate function in tube o Oval cavity o Esophagus: upper esophageal sphincter (voluntary) o Stomach: lower esophageal sphincter o Small intestine: pyloric sphincter o Large intestine: ileocecal valve o Anus: internal anal sphincter and external anal sphincter (voluntary) - Generally prevent lumen contents from moving backwards - Mostly made to flow downwards, except for vomiting - 4 Basic Processes o Motility o Secretion o Digestion o Absorption 12 General Structure of GI Tube - Has its own nervous system! - Lumen: single cell later separates the inside and outside of the body (intestinal epithelium) - Lymph nodule - Blood vessels - Duct of accessory gland - Mesentery - 28 feet long, extensive folding - Luminal surface area = 200-400 square metres - Transit time for a meal = 30-80 hours o 5-8 hours through stomach and small intestine - Senses and expels bad substances o Diarrhea and vomiting - Interacts with resident gut microbiome o Help protect against pathogenic microbes that enter/reside in the tract Motility ~ Peristalsis vs. Segmentation - Multiple layers of smooth muscle o Gap junctions o Pacemaker cells - Peristalsis o Esophagus o One way o Through contractions - Segmentation o Small intestine o Movement in both directions  Allows greater mixing Diseases and Disorders of Motility in the GI Tract - GERD o Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease… Common - Gastroparesis o Pyloric sphincter - SBBOS o Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome o Ileoceal valve - Chronic constipation o Common Secretion - Into the lumen… o From glands  Salvia from salivary glands  Acid from gastric glands  Pancreatic juice from the exocrine pancreas  Bile from the liver o From individual cells in the epithelium  Mucus secretion from Goblet Cells 13  Secretory IgA from specialized epithelial cells o Gut epithelial cells also secrete paracrine messengers to neighbouring cells via the extracellular fluid in the tissue and secrete hormones to enter the bloodstream and travel to distal sites! - Happening in every direction and it ranges in size/type Diseases and Disorders of GI Tract - Cystic Fibrosis - Inflammatory and secretory diarrhea - Achlorhydria: low acid production/excessive use of antacid drugs - Xerostomia: dry mouth, lack of salvia The Second Brain (Enteric Nervous System) ~ 2 way communication Before We Eat… - Motivation to Eat o Hedonic hunger o Homeostatic hunger - Nutritional Status o Deficiency of nutrients and/or energy o Adequacy of nutrients and/or energy o Excess of nutrients and/or energy After We Eat… - Within 48 hours food consumed to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body is “processed” o Convert polymers and complex macromolecules into useable units + distribute throughout body o These are essential, conditionally essential, and non-essential nutrient chemicals in food- if we are deficient in an essential nutrient in the body~ we have nutriental deficiency disease.  Amino acids (protein)  Monosaccharides (carbohydrate)  Fatty acids (fat or lipids)  Minerals  Vitamins 14 Cephalic Phase of Digestion and Absorption - Chemical and mechanical digestion begins in the mouth - All senses involved in preparing to eat o Brain imaging: large areas of the brain “light-up” when we prepare to take our first bite of food - Chewing = mastication - Salivary secretion is under autonomic control (stimulated by SNS and PNS) o Softens and lubricates food o Provides enzymes: amylase and some lipase Tongue - Contains taste buds, or papillae, that are able to detect taste o Sweet: sucrose o Sour: HCl o Salty: NaCl o Bitter: quinine o Savory/umami: l-theanine - No regional segregation for these flavours - Together with receptors in nasal cavity the tongue transmits flavour and smell information to the CNS o Stimulates salivary glands to begin digestion - Taste buds have taste receptors Gastric Phase of Digestion - Digestion of protein and fat occur in the stomach - No digestion of carbohydrate occurs - Mucous neck cell o Releases mucus and bicarbonate o Prevents damage to epithelium - Parietal cells o Activates pepsin; kills bacteria o Permits absorption - Enterochromaffin- like cel o Stimulates gastric acid secretion - Chief cells o Digests protein and fat - D cells o Inhibits gastric acid secretion - G cells o Stimulates gastric acid secretion Small Intestinal Phase of Digestion and Absorption - Small Intestine o Bulk of digestion and absorption occurs in small intestine - Duodenum o Short in length but villus height and number of microvilli maximize absorption o Epithelial cells sense fat in the lumen and signal the gallbladder to release bile - Jejunum - Ileum 15 o Long in length but villus height is low and microvilli per cell is low **Note: Endocrine pancreas has no duct. Exocrine pancreas uses a duct. Microvilli - Small intestine mucosa; villi increase surface area to promote absorption of nutrients - Most absorption occurs in microvilli absorptive cells and then is put into capillaries - Fat is transported via the lymph until it can safely enter the blood supply Secretions into the lumen of the small intestine upon the opening of the pyloric sphincter and food (chyme) entering the upper duodenum… 1. Bicarbonate; from cells in the intestinal epithelium and in pancreatic secretions 2. Digestive Enzymes; from the pancreas 3. Bile Acids (as bile fluid); from the liver/gallbladder Digestive enzymes anchored on the luminal surface of small intestine epithelial cells… 1. Disaccharidases 2. Amino peptidases *for a chemical to be absorbed from the small intestine, it must be sol
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