BIOL 1070 Study Guide - Fish Gill, Ecological Niche, Continental Drift

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12 Aug 2013
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Biodiversity 1/9/2013 9:27:00 AM
Introduction
Biodiversity is the variety of genes, species and ecosystems
Shaped by billions of years of evolutionary history of interaction
between environments and life forms (natural phenomenon, other
species, etc.)
Human activity can have lasting impacts at large scales that are
difficult to predict
Descent with modification from common ancestors
Mussels
What factors contribute to the threats to native freshwater mussel
biodiversity in the Great Lakes Region?
o MASS PROPAGATION OF MUSSELS
o POLLUTION
o HUMAN IMPACTS
o INVASIVE SPECIES
o POLLUTION
o OVERFISHING
o TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION
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Bivalves develop in 3 ways (Ontogenic Variation; not all freshwater mussels
develop in the same way)
By passing early development as a parasitic stage on a host
(Unionids)
By producing veliger larvae ( in Dreissena polymorpha)
By releasing fully developed young mussels (rare)
Dioeceous (Male and female; both genders)
Production: releases sperm from the exhalant siphon, female takes
in sperm from the inhalant siphon; female now has sperm and egg
in the same area internally; once the egg is fertilized it is an
embryo, the embryo is then held within a little chamber within the
gills called a marsupium; those embryos develop and then release
Glochidia which attach to a fish gills by clamping down onto the
finger-like gill extensions, suck nutrients out of the blood of the
fish; Eventually leave the fish and grow till the become a full sized
adult)
Glochidia
Cannot swim or crawl
Attach to host fish gills
Sometimes release a few million of these glochidia
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As few as 10 out of a million can attach to a fish gill
Strategies for Infection
Using Lures to attract the fish (modified mantle tissue that mimics
fish or invertebrate prey to attract fish host)
Conglutinate : a membranous sac that is released by the mussel,
attached by a thread that is filled with glochidia
Host capture: Mussel may physically grip host and pump glochidia
over the gills (snuffbox mussel)
Veliger Larvae
Trocophore (stage at which larvae are released into the water
column)
Veliger larvae that can move in the water and are carried a long
distance away and do not require a host to complete their life cycle
Go under metamorphosis after the Pediveliger stage to form a
juvenile
Starts are Embryo, embryo becomes veliger larvae, undergoes
some transformations and undergoes complete tissue and structure
metamorphosis into a juvenile settled larvae until it grows into an
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