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University of Guelph
BIOL 1070
David Dyck

Biodiversity 1/9/2013 9:27:00 AM Introduction  Biodiversity is the variety of genes, species and ecosystems  Shaped by billions of years of evolutionary history of interaction between environments and life forms (natural phenomenon, other species, etc.)  Human activity can have lasting impacts at large scales that are difficult to predict  Descent with modification from common ancestors Mussels  What factors contribute to the threats to native freshwater mussel biodiversity in the Great Lakes Region? o MASS PROPAGATION OF MUSSELS o POLLUTION o HUMAN IMPACTS o INVASIVE SPECIES o POLLUTION o OVERFISHING o TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION Bivalves develop in 3 ways (Ontogenic Variation; not all freshwater mussels develop in the same way)  By passing early development as a parasitic stage on a host (Unionids)  By producing veliger larvae ( in Dreissena polymorpha)  By releasing fully developed young mussels (rare)  Dioeceous (Male and female; both genders)  Production: releases sperm from the exhalant siphon, female takes in sperm from the inhalant siphon; female now has sperm and egg in the same area internally; once the egg is fertilized it is an embryo, the embryo is then held within a little chamber within the gills called a marsupium; those embryos develop and then release Glochidia which attach to a fish gills by clamping down onto the finger-like gill extensions, suck nutrients out of the blood of the fish; Eventually leave the fish and grow till the become a full sized adult) Glochidia  Cannot swim or crawl  Attach to host fish gills  Sometimes release a few million of these glochidia  As few as 10 out of a million can attach to a fish gill Strategies for Infection  Using Lures to attract the fish (modified mantle tissue that mimics fish or invertebrate prey to attract fish host)  Conglutinate : a membranous sac that is released by the mussel, attached by a thread that is filled with glochidia  Host capture: Mussel may physically grip host and pump glochidia over the gills (snuffbox mussel) Veliger Larvae  Trocophore (stage at which larvae are released into the water column)  Veliger larvae that can move in the water and are carried a long distance away and do not require a host to complete their life cycle  Go under metamorphosis after the Pediveliger stage to form a juvenile  Starts are Embryo, embryo becomes veliger larvae, undergoes some transformations and undergoes complete tissue and structure metamorphosis into a juvenile settled larvae until it grows into an adult (think of a tadpole -> Frog; lungs develop, loses fins and gills, gains limbs) Biological Variation A secondary source of genetic variation is Recombination Gene Flow: Movement of genes among populations that brings variation into a population Genetic Drift: Evolution By chance due to a random event . Random changes in allele frequencies due to chance.  Can cause the population bottle neck, when a population is severely reduced in size. Loss of individuals not related to particular traits (happens at random) usually because of a catastrophe of some sort.  Founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new smaller population is established. Natural Selection  Variations useful to any organic being do occur, assuredly individuals thus characterized will have the best chance of being preserved  From the principle of inheritance they tend to produce offspring similarly characterized this principle of preservation is called Natural Selection  If useful allele appears it is passed on and with time allele frequency for this allele increases.  Heritability and Overproduction are key components of natural selection as well as variation in alleles Mutations  Mutations are random  Good, bad and neutral mutations happen with equal probability  Beneficial mutations increase in frequency and deleterious once decrease in frequency under natural selection (Change in proportion of mutations is non-random under natural selection) Mussel Anatomy  Surface area of gills is high, these Mussels have to extract oxygen from the water  Water is drawn in through the inhalant siphon and passes over the gills and then water is expelled from exhalent siphon  All molluscs have mantle but within the phylum there is great disparity  Mantle: Folding of the body wall that lines shell and secrets shell substance (CaCO3) and houses gills Note: Adaptation is the evolutionary change over thousands of generations, enhances survival and reproduction through natural selection  Co-option of a functional tissue into a new and additional function. (I.E: Mantle -> Complex lure)  Extirpated: Disappeared from a region, but not extinct yet Extinction  Failure to adapt to a changing physical environment or find a new suitable habitat (Not enough variation? No gene flow?)  Failure to keep up with the evolution of a competitor, predator, host pathogen, etc.  Being driven to extinction by a newly encountered competitor, pathogen, or predator  Losing an essential host , prey, or partner species HOW DO THESE RELATE TO MUSSELS? What matters most for speciation is that there is a barrier to gene flow, which allows one species to split into two. What kind of Barriers?  New Rivers, mountain building, continental drift, reproductive biological barrier, behavior  Allopatric speciation (different place) : Species is split due to a geographic barrier or because some individuals move to a separate place. Through natural selection have evolved and changed, the animals that are moved away can no longer breed together and are not compatible. When viable offspring cannot be created, they are now different species.  Sympatric speciation (same place): Species is split by reproductive separation without any geographic barriers. For example Maggots were only laid on hawthorns, 200 years ago immigration brought in apple trees, now the maggots are laying eggs on apple and hawthorn trees 2 populations begin to differentiate a lot because of the different locations that the maggots are born on. Maggots born on apple trees only like apples, maggots born on hawthorns prefer laying eggs on hawthorns. Hypothesis Definition  Hypothesis: A proposed explanation for a fairly narrow set of phenomena, usually based on prior experience, scientific background knowledge, preliminary observations, and logic.  A testable statement about the natural world that can be used to build more complex inferences and explanations. Measuring Ecosystem Diversity  Identify the species in the area with a dichotomous key  Ecosystem diversity includes the variety and relative abundance of species  To measure we must define what organisms are sample, the spatial area sampled and when/how long we sampled (time)  Abundance is a higher amount of individuals  Seasonality is also an important figure, depending on what time of year you go out (I.E: you won’t find very many butterflies in the winter)  How long you spend in the environment and how much effort you put in  The number of species per specified collection/sample area OR specified number of individuals D is the correct answer. Evenness: Relative abundance of species in an area (Shannon’s Index) (2 pine: 2 Spruce: 2 Oak = High Evenness) ; (3 Pine; 5 spruce; 1 palm = Low Evenness) Woodlot  A forest in a city (urban forest)  Remnant forest in a farmers field  Start off with a canopy and a dominant canopy that sticks over all the others (a Supercanopy).  Sub canopy: which could be shrubs  Open area : forest floor  Process: Not a lot of organic layer left in the forest floor  Nutrient fallout comes through the leaves; lichens and mosses add nutrients to the ground Ecosystem  A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment  Ecosystems can be large (Canadian boreal forest ) or small (a pond) Temperature Deciduous Forest Biome  Seasonal variation in mean temperature (5-20 degrees Celcius)  Precipitation is even among the season (80-120cm/yr)  Deciduous trees dominate  Dominate because they outcompete conifers in summer because large leaves = greater photosynthetic capacity  Why do deciduous trees lose their leaves in the fall o  Why don’t coniferous trees dominate wherever this is a winter season? o Time for growing season (In spring, deciduous have to regrow their leaves and it takes time to photosynthesize, in the spring, in the northern part of Ontario conifers can starts producing energy right away, once the deciduous trees have dropped their leaves there’s no more chances to capture energy whereas Conifers can turn on the machinery at any time.  What kind of Trees are found in tropical regions? Old Field Woods Majestic Pine Maple Ridge Woods Woods Forest Age 20 80 250 Soil/water table Shallow soil with Deep organic soil Shallow organic mineral soil of with sandy layer with sandy sand and clay. mineral soil. mineral soil. Shallow water Medium Water Deep water Woody Plant Very High Medium low Diversity Birds High Medium low Physiognomy Shrub dominated Trees Trees Invasive Species Giant Hogweed Nuisance Species Raccoons/ Skunk Endangered Soecues Population  One species  Number of individuals (abundance)  Geographic distribution = area in which individuals occur  Growth (increase or decrease in abundance over time) Community  A community is composed of multiple species within an area  Number of species (diversity)  Trophic structure (plants, herbivores, carnivores)  Composition (Abundance, evenness, dominance [one species dominating over others]) D is the answer. B is talking about POPULATION not COMMUNITY. What Ecological Factors place limits on a species geographic range?  Dispersal (Nuts falling from a tree, spores from fungi)  Biological Interactions (Dependence on animals around them e.g. parasites, symbiotic relationships, host-dependence)  Habitat selection (Particular environments during life cycles that may limit where they are going to be, where birds decide to nest, etc.)  Abiotic Factors o Climate (temperature, moisture) o Geology (rock type, land formations) o Soil minerals, texture (silt, sand, clay), acidity o Light (sun, shade) o Nutrients (Nitrogen, Phosphorus , Potassium) o Pollutants o And others… o Interconnectedness between abiotic factors (Soil influences nutrients, geology influences soil, moisture influences nutrients, etc.) How do Abiotic Factors influence the distribution of Plants and Animals?  Restrict access to resources o Food/Nutrients o Habitat  Limit Physical Tolerances o Hot/cold o Chemistry (toxins; heavy metals in soils [some plants can take them and sequester them away and survive])  Physical barriers o Rivers, Mountains, lakes, oceans How would you determine which abiotic factor is limiting the distribution of a species?  Field observation of actual range distribution  Determine ecological tolerances  Experiments (field transplant, controlled environment) o Transplanting trees into ranges until you get into a point where you can no longer transplant them  Correlation between environmental gradients and a species optimum range (Birds don’t go past a line) Transplanting Light Water % Survival A Low Low 90 B High High 44 C High low 19 Light is the key factor Niche  Niche is the set of biotic and abiotic conditions in which a species is able to persist and maintain stable population sizes  Or A niche consists of all the factors necessary for a species existence in terms of time, space and required resources  Fundamental Niche o All the possible dimensions in which a species can survive in principle  Realized Niche o The dimensions in which a species actually survives after the effects of biotic interactions  Niche Differentiation o (In terms of Finches) – Natural selection for bigger and smaller beak sizes due to competition for food  Community Assemblage o Development of ecological niche in a forest along a gradient of time (or Succession) Symbioses  Commensalism o One organism benefits the other organism is unaffected  Mutualism o Both Organisms benefit  Parasitism / Predation o One organism gains nutrients and energy the other organism is injured or killed Measuring Population Size  Birth and death rates, immigration, emigration o Sex and age structure (# of males vs # of females) o Fecundity (# of eggs that are produced per females) o Fertility (% of eggs that are fertile) o Production (Actual number of offspring produced by a population) o Recruitment (# of new individuals reaching breeding age, includes immigration)  Population size  Area o Population density  Mice 0.025/m 2 2  Ladybugs 50/m  Plankton 5,000,000/m 2 o Clumped o Even o Random Dispersal  Movement of young from their birthplace prior to reproducing (e.g., Mussels, bears [can move large distances])  Environmental dispersal, for example water-assisted dispersal (Coconut crab, adult female goes to edge of water and deposits egg underneath the water, larvae send 3-4 weeks in the ocean and they are dispersed long distances because of tropical storms that causes the larvae to disperse to other islands in the area)  Air assisted dispersal (gliders, parachutes, helicopters, cottony seeds ,flutters, Tumbleweed)  Animal assisted dispersal (burrs)  Hitchhikers (eating berries and then the animal excretes seeds in other areas) Carrying Capacity of environment  Maximum population size in a particular environment  Factors that influence it o Resources o Specific habitat requirements that limit carrying capacity o Climate  Carrying capacity can change over time (introduction of new species, change in space and resources o At inflection point the rate of change is reduced but population growth is still increasing  Regulation of a population by changes in per capita birth or death rates in response to density is said to be density dependent  Density Dependence o Depletion of food supply that accompanies growth o Attraction of predators by high density prey o Increased infection by disease with higher density  Regulation of a population by changing only the population size is said to be density independent o A rare extreme event o Hard Freeze o Tornado o Flood o Landslide Which species is easier to manage? One that is not at carrying capacity because its still in the growing phases of its population Biogeography  Ecological biogeography: The here and now. The account of the present day distribution of species in terms of abiotic and biotic factors  Historical Biogeography: Is the reconstruction of speciation, dispersal, establishment, distribution and extinction of species. For example, Where were these species found before and what influences their range?  Range = The area or location inhabited by species for a defined amount of time (scale dependent (global, local). o Small scale VS Large scale. Endemic (Found in one place only, nowhere else in the world. Evolved there and only found there).  If a species occupies an area, it may have evolved there or evolved elsewhere and dispersed there  Dispersal and Vicariance o Vicariance is pressures from dramatic changes in landscape. Rivers, mountain rangers forming, earthquakes, tectonic shift that causes species dispersal Continental Drift  Distributions of fossils and living organisms are difficult to explain if continents never moved  Mountain chains, rock strata, glacial deposits and fossils could be aligned  Plate tectonics caused continental drift. Timing of continental Drift  290 mil years ago- Pangea exists  200 – Splits into Laurasia and Gondwana  140 mil – Gondwana splits and drifts into south America, Africa, new Zealand, Australasia  65 mil – gondwana fully separated; laurasia begins to drift apart  50 mil – continents near current positions  4000-3500 million years ago, the earth was covered by ocean and volcanoes. Continents were starting to be formed.  Pattern in biogeography: Equator separates zones of high and low geographic difference. North of equator only 2 biomes , south of equator there are 5. Gondwana started separating earlier, 75 million years earlier. Had more time for species to adapt than Laurasia.  Species are distributed in clear patterns geographically and not just by habitat  Major patterns are now known to correspond to earth history  E.g. similar biotas on very distant continents or different biota on islands that are close and have similar habitat (Wallace’s line).  In ice age water levels go down in the oceans. In certain areas it went down 400 feet so many animals could move back and forth during 50 million years of time during the glaciation. White-throated sparrows, Rainbow trout. Rainbow trout are ectothermic , body T changes with environmental temperature. Their body goes from 20 degrees to 4 degrees. Their heart still functions in wide temperature ranges. Integrative biology field course. Big tide shifts in new Brunswick. Developing Maple Ridge – Lowest Alpha Diversity Old Field – Not as used by the public, however water table makes it difficult to build, mostly shrubs only Preserving young hogweed can be removed, endangered butternut, highest alpha diversity in plants/ birds Debriefing Integrative thinking that involves 5 important phases  Refine Question  Concept Analysis  Concept Map  Prioritize  Resolution Integrative thinking: This is a skill that required significant training to learn and years of practice to implement intuitively. Professional programs are increasingly emphasizing critical thinking and problem-based learning. In other words, integrative thinking. Using all the concepts you learned throughout and piecing them together. Maple Ridge was developed : The age, it was approaching the end of its cycle. The trees weren’t going to be around for much longer. Rare species that were found in the Old Field Woods. It was a key reason for why it was not developed. Research Case 1  Emerald Ash borer is an exotic beetle – native to Asia  Estimated to have arrived in the US around 1990  Enormous amount of trade of wood and enough insects came over to establish a population  Discovered in Michigan and Detroit in 2002 and in Windsor. Ontario in the same year  Ohio in 2003  Adult beetles eat the ash leaves  Larvae chew the inner bark of the trees , eating xylem and phloem. Environmental Impact  All native ash, are now threatened  Ecosystems will be affected o Wildlife, watersheds o Carbon sinks o Facilitate other invasive species Economic Impact  As of 2011, EAB has killed an estimated 50-100 million trees and threatens the 7.5 billion ash across all of north America  Value of the ash grown in eastern US: 25 Billion dollars  Estimated 1.7 billion dollars in local government expenditures and approximately 830 million in lost residential value annually. Realized Niche : The dimensions in which a species actually survive after the effects of biotic interactions. The realized Niche of EAB is small compared to the fundamental niche. Fundamental Niche; All the possible dimensions in which a species can survive in principle. For the EAB, the fundamental area is much larger, it can inhabit almost the entirety of North America. What effect does Pesticide have on populations? The pesticide is not that effective on them. Foliar spray is density independent. You don’t adjust the carrying capacity, so in a short amount of time, in another growing season the insects will be right back at carrying capacity. Biological controls (density dependent to reduce carrying capacity.  Using parasitoids (of the ash borer) exotic and natives Impact on the dairy bush  Many of the ash trees will be dead if it moves through the dairy bush Research Case 2 Belize  Author contacted over the Mangrove Ribbulus.  Mangrove roots are aerial and provide stability and it is a thick organic layer of decomposing vegetation. Releases hydrogen sulfide, rotten egg smell.  Fish are found in the little pools of water on the forest floor  Abiotic factors that organisms have to deal with  Fish are also found in a freshwater habitat , hundreds of fish in this pool. These fish are well suited to big differences in salinity of water.  After a few weeks the freshwater pool disappeared and the fish went somewhere as well  The fish leave water and do it several times a day when the abiotic factors are too tough. High temperature, high hydrogen sulfide and salinity changes make them jump out of the water and rest on logs or jump into logs.  Survive up to 2 months in this moist habitat o Highly Variable Environment (H2S, Oxygen, salinity, temperature ) o Extreme Abiotic factors (for fish) Emersion (out of water) Survive two months in rotted logs, leaf litter 1/9/2013 9:27:00 AM Evolution : The study of both adaptive and non-adaptive change over time in populations, the origin and extinction of species and the relationships among living things. Ecology: The study of interrelationships between organisms both living and non living components of their environments. PHYSIOLOGY – The study of organism structure and function, including homeostasis and encompassing cells, tissues, organs, and body systems. In the arctic  Biological impacts (biodiversity changes, diseases, migration)  Political and economic impacts (Arctic sovereignty, natural resources, enviro policy)  Aesthetics  Cultural Changes  Others? E) is the Answer. For D) Metabolic rate is a whole organism change. C) is incorrect because it is not a generational change; it is chronic, fat is considered a macromolecule. Arctic  Arctic plants and animals have lived in the arctic ecosystem for thousands of years. They must cope with temperature chang eon many different time scales  Acute, Chronic, Generational o Acute: Minutes / Hours o Chronic: Days / Weeks o Generational: Multiple generations, up to thousands; long term 5 Degree change, Acute response Arctic Fox Arctic Char Ambient temp 20->25 degrees Ambient temp 4 -> 9 degrees Pant, expose limbs more to the Molecular motion increases, The ground, lick paws, seek shade whole animal’s metabolism speeds up. 2. Chronic response: Arctic fox vs Arctic char Chronic stress, cortisol Physiological response: acclimatization to new thermal regime. A reversible change in processes in the body to a new thermal regime or to other changes in the environment, can also be changes in oxygen or salinity. Happens in the natural world when seasons change and animals such as these have to go through. Population range changes Arctic char in normal waters for example may downgrade the amount of enzymes. Downregulate the amount of enzyme that is there, they may maintain a rate that is better matched to their overall metabolism. Generational Response Extirpation or even extinction Natural selection: adaptation to new thermal regime. Adaptation is NOT something that happens within the life span of an organism. Polar Bears Need to eat 43 seals to survive Normally caught in the spring on ice flows Breed in the spring, females go into dens on land in November, very precocious bear cubs are born in December (Blind, furless, very immature). Cubs stay with the mother for 1.5 years. Guest  Spiny dogfish shark o How they cope with salinity and oxygen changes o Acute stress at 4hours of low O2, then put them into oxygen- rich water. Chronic effects are seen after 4 hours of low O2, much better at dealing with low oxygen than siblings who weren’t exposed to it. Better at other stresses, more aggressive and dominant. Acclimatization  Adjustment by an individual organism to chronic stress  Physiological processes or structures change to function more optimally under new conditions.  Change is reversible, and may even be repeated. Ectotherms  LLT – Lower lethal temperature; ULT – Upper lethal temperature D) is the correct answer Endotherm
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