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Biology 1070 Midterm Total Note Summary.pdf

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BIOL 1070
T.Ryan Gregory

Biology Midterm Total Note Summary Biodiversity - three levels: genetic, species, and ecosystem - “the variety of species and ecosystems on Earth and the ecological processes of which they are a part” Alpha diversity - “inventory diversity” - the diversity within one area or ecosystem - usually expressed by the number of species (i.e., species richness) in that ecosystem Beta diversity - “differentiation diversity” - compares alpha diversity among several communities Biotic Factors - all the living things that live within and shape an ecosystem - producers (plants that convert the sun’s energy into chemical food), consumers and decomposers Abiotic Factors - non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment - climatic factors: light, radiation, temperature, water, atmospheric gases (including pollution), - soil factors: nutrients, porosity Niche - A niche is the set of biotic and abiotic conditions in which a species is able to persist and maintain stable population sizes - Fundamental niche: where a species CAN live, disregarding the effects of predation, resource limitation, etc - Realized niche: where the species DOES live, because the factors mentioned above have forced it to retreat from parts of the fundamental niche. - There is often competition with realized niches between species Important Definitions - Population: The number of individuals in one species within an area - population is “N”, population density is “N/area” - Community: A group of different species in an ecosystem - Species Richness: Number of different species in an ecosystem - Species Abundance: The frequency of individuals per species. Relative abundance relates to the “evenness” of distribution of individuals among species in a community - Species Evenness “Shannon’s Index”: Distribution/ratio of individuals from different species in one area Population Growth - the change in the number of individuals during a period of time - population growth rate = birth rate – death rate + immigration – emigration - Pt2 = Pt1 + (B) – (D) + (I) – (E) - change = starting population + births - deaths + immigration - emigration Carrying Capacity - the number of individuals who can be supported in a given area within natural resource limits - the carrying capacity for any given area is not fixed, can be altered Density Dependence - the effect of the factor on the size of the population depends upon the original density or size of the population ▯ - attraction of predators due to high density prey - depletion of food supply that accompanies growth - increased infection by disease with higher density, eg in residence it’s easier to get sick - changes the carrying capacity (K), best method for long term control Density Independence - the effect of the factor on the size of the population is independent of and does NOT depend upon the original density or size of the population - snow storm, populations can drop down along the curve but can accelerate back to the old carrying capacity - a rare extreme event, snow storm, hurricane - doesn’t change carrying capacity (K) Species Dispersal - Movement of young from their birthplace prior to reproducing (eg mussels) - Movement of reproductively mature adults - Animals use water (eg mussels) and air dispersal (eg maple helicopters) methods, as well as using other animals (eg hitch hiking) - Can use fossil evidence to track historical dispersal eg lake sediments from it’s core section, pollen provides great tree/plant history Biogeography - ecological biogeography: the account of present day distribution of species - historical biogeography: the reconstruction of speciation, dispersal, establishment, distribution, and extinction of species Geographic Distribution - range: the area or location inhabited by species for a defined amount of time - scale dependent (global, local) - small range (endemic species): found only in one place, some are
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