Study Guides (248,368)
Canada (121,499)
Biology (584)
BIOL 1070 (172)
Midterm

Biology 1070 Midterm Total Note Summary.pdf

5 Pages
211 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1070
Professor
T.Ryan Gregory
Semester
Winter

Description
Biology Midterm Total Note Summary Biodiversity - three levels: genetic, species, and ecosystem - “the variety of species and ecosystems on Earth and the ecological processes of which they are a part” Alpha diversity - “inventory diversity” - the diversity within one area or ecosystem - usually expressed by the number of species (i.e., species richness) in that ecosystem Beta diversity - “differentiation diversity” - compares alpha diversity among several communities Biotic Factors - all the living things that live within and shape an ecosystem - producers (plants that convert the sun’s energy into chemical food), consumers and decomposers Abiotic Factors - non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment - climatic factors: light, radiation, temperature, water, atmospheric gases (including pollution), - soil factors: nutrients, porosity Niche - A niche is the set of biotic and abiotic conditions in which a species is able to persist and maintain stable population sizes - Fundamental niche: where a species CAN live, disregarding the effects of predation, resource limitation, etc - Realized niche: where the species DOES live, because the factors mentioned above have forced it to retreat from parts of the fundamental niche. - There is often competition with realized niches between species Important Definitions - Population: The number of individuals in one species within an area - population is “N”, population density is “N/area” - Community: A group of different species in an ecosystem - Species Richness: Number of different species in an ecosystem - Species Abundance: The frequency of individuals per species. Relative abundance relates to the “evenness” of distribution of individuals among species in a community - Species Evenness “Shannon’s Index”: Distribution/ratio of individuals from different species in one area Population Growth - the change in the number of individuals during a period of time - population growth rate = birth rate – death rate + immigration – emigration - Pt2 = Pt1 + (B) – (D) + (I) – (E) - change = starting population + births - deaths + immigration - emigration Carrying Capacity - the number of individuals who can be supported in a given area within natural resource limits - the carrying capacity for any given area is not fixed, can be altered Density Dependence - the effect of the factor on the size of the population depends upon the original density or size of the population ▯ - attraction of predators due to high density prey - depletion of food supply that accompanies growth - increased infection by disease with higher density, eg in residence it’s easier to get sick - changes the carrying capacity (K), best method for long term control Density Independence - the effect of the factor on the size of the population is independent of and does NOT depend upon the original density or size of the population - snow storm, populations can drop down along the curve but can accelerate back to the old carrying capacity - a rare extreme event, snow storm, hurricane - doesn’t change carrying capacity (K) Species Dispersal - Movement of young from their birthplace prior to reproducing (eg mussels) - Movement of reproductively mature adults - Animals use water (eg mussels) and air dispersal (eg maple helicopters) methods, as well as using other animals (eg hitch hiking) - Can use fossil evidence to track historical dispersal eg lake sediments from it’s core section, pollen provides great tree/plant history Biogeography - ecological biogeography: the account of present day distribution of species - historical biogeography: the reconstruction of speciation, dispersal, establishment, distribution, and extinction of species Geographic Distribution - range: the area or location inhabited by species for a defined amount of time - scale dependent (global, local) - small range (endemic species): found only in one place, some are
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 1070

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit