BIOL 1070 - Unit 2 Quiz
Domains – eukaryotes
Kingdoms – Animilia (animals)
Phyla (singular: Phylum) - Mollusca (mollusks)
Classes – Mammilia (mammals)
Orders – Primates (apes)
Families -Hominidae (great apes)
Genera (singular: Genus) - Homo (humans and extinct relatives, e.g., Neanderthals)
Species (singular is also species, not specie) - sapiens (humans)
Biologists use the word “diversity” to refer to the number of species in a taxonomic group or a
Differences Within Species: Sexual Dimorphism and Age
Each species has morphological (physical) traits that can be used to distinguish it from other mussels.
Our development — what biologists call “ontogeny” — involves significant changes in morphology from
youth to old age. This is also true of mussels!
Humans exhibit sexual dimorphism.
Female mussels have a wider posterior while males come to a point.
Differences Within Species II: Morphology
Dreissena polymorpha, is one such example: “polymorpha” means “many forms”. Zebra Mussel
Differences Within Species: Cryptic Variation
To be evolutionarily relevant, variation among individuals must be heritable. In other words, there must be
a genetic basis for the observed trait such that it will be passed on in similar form to offspring.
Cases in which the same set of genes (genotype) can result in differing features (phenotype) according to
environmental conditions are known as “phenotypic plasticity”.
Abundance vs. Variation vs. Diversity vs. Disparity
Whereas diversity is a measure of the number of different species, disparity refers to how physically
different those species are from each other.
We are all Related
Ways in which living things are related