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Term Test 2 Notes.doc

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1070

BIO 1070 – Term Test 2 Notes Biodiversity: refers to the different scales of biological variation Species richness number of species present in a defined area such as a community or ecosystem Species abundance how common a species is in a defined area Abiotic factors are the physical and chemical features of an environment. Abiotic factors include light (radiation), temperature, water (availabilty, composition, flow), atmospheric gases (including pollution), and soil factors such as nutrients and porosity Biotic factors refer to the living things that live within and shape an ecosystem. Includes producers (plants that convert the sun’s energy into chemical food), consumers (organims that eat other plants and/or animals) and decomposers (organisms such as bacteria or fungi that feed off dead biota, decomposing large organic molecules into smaller units). Population: A populations refers to the colllection of individuals of a single species within a defined area at a specified point in time. Community: A community refers to the collection of species (each with its own population) living in a given area at a particular point in time. Community ecology is the study of the structure and dynamics of animal and plant communities. Ecosystem: An ecosystem is a community of organisms that interact with each other and environmental factors (e.g., abiotic factors). Ecosystem ecologists focus on the investigating processes that influence the composition and distribution of organisms. This includes the transfer of energy and cycling of nutrients. What is a forest/woodlot? -different species and layers of trees -canopy, sub-canopy, shrub layer, moss etc. Population growth is defined as the change in the number of individuals during some period of time. This is calculated using demographic data; population growth rate = birth rate – death rate + immigration – emigration. The calculation of population size is expressed as Pt2 = Pt1 + (B) – (D) + (I) – (E) Carrying capacity is defined as the number of individuals that can be survive on the available resources within a given area. It is not fixed as it can be altered by disturbances that deplete resources. Species Interactions: Different species that live in the same ecosystem/community interact in many different ways Types of species interacitons: Mutalism: Both species benefitted Competition: Both species have a negative effect on each other Predation/Parasitism: 1 species harmed the other benefits Commensalism: Species 1 is benefited, but species 2 is neither benefitted nor harmed. Amensalism: Species 1 has a neg
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