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Biol 1070 Exam Review 2012.docx

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BIOL 1070
T.Ryan Gregory

Biol 1070 Exam Review 2012 Factors affecting musselsInvasive zebra musselsChanges to rivers drainage and irrigation practices causing erosion of riverbanks and buildup of sediments in rivers damns and channels affecting water flow effecting also local freshwater biodiversityPollution run off of pesticides fertilizers industrial pollutants pharmaceuticalsOverexploitation of mussels for pearls or shells buttons and fish hostsChanges in water temperature climate changeunknown impactChanges in predation on mussels or host fish Unionidae Dreissenidae Two siphons bivalve shell Two siphons bivalve shell Obligate parasitic larval stage Freeliving planktonic larvae Dioecious separate male and female Dioecious Internal fertilization External fertilization Burron in sandAttach to any solid substrate Unionid life cycleLarvae glochidia cant swim or crawl attach to host fish gills ovisacs glochidia enclosed in membranous capsules that mimic host prey for infecting fish hosts conglutinates packets of glochidia eaten by host or stick to host mussel physically grips host and pumps glochidia into gills Simple lures modified mantle tissue mimics fish or invertebrate prey to catch fish attention to attract hostZebra mussel lifecycle Veliger larvae released into water doesnt need fish host settles on to any solid surfaceGenetic variation differences at the DNA level among individuals within a population or species can change within populations in by mutation natural selection genetic drift gene flow Alleles different version of the same gene Mutation primary source of genetic variation errors in DNA replication occur randomly DONT occur in order to benefit organism good bad neutral mutations equally likely beneficial mutations occur with increasing frequency and deleterious mutations decrease frequency under natural selection change proportion of mutations is nonrandom under natural selection whether mutation is beneficial or harmful depends on environment Kinds of mutationNatural selection NONRANDOM differences in survival andor reproduction among individual entities on the basis of differences in heritable characteristics Genetic drift evolution by chance due to sampling error random changes in allele frequencies in a population due to chance Causes population bottlenecks sudden severe reduction in population size loss not related to individuals particular traits random Founder effect movement to an isolated area Gene flow movement of genes among populations sharing of alleles among populations
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