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BIOL 1070 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Positive Feedback, Homeostasis, Lightdark

Course Code
BIOL 1070
Shoshanah Jacobs
Study Guide

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BIOL*1070 Unit 9
Processes by which Arctic organisms exchange materials with their external environment:
1. Gases – most animals require O2 for metabolism and release CO2 as the respiratory
waste product.
2. Nutrients – animals utilize many different types of food, obtaining carbohydrates, fats,
and proteins in their diets.
3. Wastes – fluid and solid wastes from digestion and metabolism are released. Organisms
must also balance the ion composition of their internal fluids. Ions are obtained from food
or directly from the environment (especially in aquatic animals).
Rate of exchange depends on membrane surface area
Amount of substance required depends on volume of the organism
Complex animals must also have a circulatory fluid that carries gases, wastes, and
nutrients to the interstitial fluid
Respiratory systems and digestive systems have direct contact with the external
Interstitial Fluid – the fluid surrounding cells where dissolved substances can be exchanged
Ectotherms (e.g., amphibians, fishes) do not regulate temperature, but do regulate many
other internal variables, such as blood [Na+].
Endotherms (mammals and birds), which regulate body temperature to within a narrow
range around a set point, along with other variables such as blood pH, ion concentration,
and glucose
Not all feedback control is negative
Different Levels of Organization
molecules → macromolecules → cells → whole organisms → populations → communities →
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