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Unit 1 Exam

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1070
T.Ryan Gregory

Page 1 of 7 (Pink) Week 2 – LO-4 Utensilus plasticus feeds on small prey items, especially marshmallows. The population consists of two different head shapes, forks (n = 16) and spoons (n = 4). There is a sudden change in the prey population because an invasive species, the lima bean (hard, oval), is now present in a higher number than the typical prey species, the marshmallow. Over the next few generations …. Choose the hypothesis that is most plausible. a) Reproductive success of Utensilus plasticus depends on their morphology and their environment. b) Reproductive success of Utensilus plasticus depends on their environment. c) Reproductive success of Utensilus plasticus depends on their morphology. d) Reproductive success of the lima beans depends on consuming marshmallows. e) Reproductive success of Utensilus plasticus is random and it is equally likely that forks or spoons will succeed. Lecture 4 – presented this scenario, asked “what hypotheses and predictions would you propose” (A) correct, as morphology (head shape) and environment (prey) now both play a role in reproductive success. Week 1 – LO-4 Read the New Scientist article below and select the statement that most accurately represents the information below. a) Wolves were hunted to near extinction but the population has rebounded. b) Montana and Idaho have re-instated the wolf hunt in order to reduce the number of wolves preying on caribou. c) Researchers who monitor the wolf population in Idaho are able to predict population health of other populations. d) The wolf hunt is controversial because the group who monitors the population is satisfied that the wolves are not at risk whereas conservationists argue that wolves remain threatened. e) Wolves were extirpated in the past and were placed on the Endangered Species Act for protection. Page 2 of 7 (Pink) Week 1 – LO-2, Week 2 – LO-1 The next 3 questions refer to the following observations about mussels in a particular region: i) Free swimming zebra mussel veligers (231-462 microns) enter metamorphosis and transform into settled juveniles (1-3 mm). ii) Efforts to identify species of native mussels can be confounded by the variation that exists in morphological traits within species. (iii) Female (not male) Lampsilis reeveiana have complex lures to attract a fish host. (iv) Dreissena polymorpha is native to eastern Eurasia. (v) Most freshwater mussels are either male or female in the adult stage. Which of the above observations provides the best example of phenotypic variation. a) observation (i) b) observation (ii) c) observation (iii) d) observation (iv) e) observation (v) Which of the above observations is an example of ontogenic variation? a) observation (i) b) observation (ii) c) observation (iii) d) observation (iv) e) observation (v) (A) correct, “ontogeny” means development, ontogenic variations (online week 2) refers to changes that occur at different stages of life cycle. Which of the above observations is an example of sexual dimorphism? a) observation (i) b) observation (ii) c) observation (iii) d) observation (iv) e) observation (v) (C) correct, sexual dimorphism refers to different phenotypes in males vs. females of same species. Page 3 of 7 (Pink) Which of the following statements is TRUE about evolution? a) Evolution creates new alleles through genetic error, but how common a new allele becomes may depend on whether it happens to have a beneficial or deleterious effect. b) Over many generations, the accumulation of beneficial mutations can lead to the evolution of specialized features (eg. complex lures in Unionids). c) Evolution involves a change in allele frequencies in a population that can ONLY occur through the process of natural selection. d) A good example of evolution is antibiotic resistance in bacteria, where exposure to antibiotics causes individual bacteria to become more resistant. e) Populations evolve primarily through random changes in allele frequencies caused by chance events. Mutations create new alleles through genetic error (not evolution), therefore, (A) is incorrect. (B) is correct. Evolution can occur as a result of gene flow (immigration, emigration), genetic drift (chance events), not only natural selection, so (C) is incorrect. Week 3 – LO-2 There are two populations of Utensilus plasticus residing in the same area. These are all members of the same species, though two different phenotypes (fork and spoon) are present. You decide to observe the two populations for several generations, and you notice the following: GENERATION)1 GENERATION)2 GENERATION)3 POPULATION)1 POPULATION)1 POPULATION)1 POPULATION)2 POPULATION)2 POPULATION)2 GENERATION)1 GENERATION)2 GENERATION)3 Page 4 of 7 (Pink) Which is the most likely interpretation of these observations? a) Neither population is undergoing natural selection because the same total number of individuals is found in each population in every generation. b) Populations 1 and 2 are evolving into two separate species due to extensive gene flow. c) Random mutations occurred that created new alleles in both populations. d) Population 1 was founded by individuals from Population 2 and due to the “founder effect” the two populations differ in their proportions of fork and spoon phenotypes. e) the ancestors of population 1 and 2 ate the same prey but distinct subgroups arose that favoured different diets and over time their allele frequencies diverged. (E) is correct (Lecture 5) sympatric speciation, species is split without geographic isolation (e.g. different prey). (B) is incorrect as gene flow would result in final (generation 3) populations being the same. (D) is incorrect, as the founder effect refers to a smaller population splitting off from a larger population (lecture 3). Week 2 – LO-2 th As a 4 yr research student you analyze DNA sequences from a population of purple wartyback mussels in the St. Clair River and discover a relatively high level of genetic variation in the population. Which of the following hypotheses would you ACCEPT as an explanation for this observation? a) The high dispersal rate of veliger larvae increases genetic variation in this species. b) Host fish carrying glochidia migrate seasonally from distant rivers. c) The river depth was reduced by drought years ago wiping out a significant portion of mussels. d) Conglutinates attached by a mucus thread contain thousands of glochidia. e) Purple wartyback are host depende
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