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BIOL 1080 Study Guide - Final Guide: Trypsin, Peristalsis, Myeloblast

Course Code
BIOL 1080
David Dyck
Study Guide

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- Hormones modulate - growth and development
- Homeostasis
- reproduction
Anterior Pituitary Gland
Liver Bone Muscle Adipose
Stimulates release of IGF Can still grow in adulthood Promotes lipolysis
- Argine alone raises GH levels at least 100%
- Argine and exercise increase GH levels by 200%
- Exercise alone increases GH levels by 300-500%
- 5mg of melatonin increased GH levels after exercising
- Sucking stimulates nerves impulses travel along nerves to hypothalamus signals posterior
pituitary to release OT OT travels through bloodstream to mammary glands milk ejected
- Neuro hormones release hormones directly into bloodstream
- Norepinephrine - increases epinephrine
- decreases insulin
- Posterior pituitary releases - neuro hormones generated I the hypothalamus circulation
- oxytocin (OT) and antidiveric hormone (ADH)
- Anterior Pituitary - PRH breasts
- TRH TSH -> thyroid gland TH
- CRH ACTH adrenal cortex cortisol
- GHRH GH liver insulin-like growth factors
cells throughout body
- GnRH LH Gonads (male) androgens
FSH gonads (female) estrogen, progesterone
- Anterior pituitary acts like a gland -> contains endocrine cells that release hormones
- Nonspecific physical and chemical surface barriers, internal cellular and chemical defense then
immune response
- Defensive cells - phagocytic cells: neutrophils (first on scene, consume almost anything)
and macrophages (consume almost anything)
- Eosinophils: kill parasites and discharge enzymes that digest target
- Natural killer cells: release perforin and proteases and kill invading
organisms (cancer cells)
- Compliment system (system of 20+ proteins)
- stimulates histamine release promotes phagocytosis kills
bacteria enhances inflammation
- activated by - polysaccharides on bacteria surface
- antigen/antibody complexes

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- deactivated by proteins in blood
- Inflammation widening of blood capillaries defensive cells speeds healing
- Fever - slows growth of bacteria
- speeds up body defenses
- Infection macrophages pyrogenic cytokines (microbial toxins also lead to this point)
hypothalamic endothelium PGE2 cyclic elevated thermoregulatory set point heat
production on
- Adipocytes increase in size and number during obesity reduced blood flow cell death
macrophages infiltrate areas (recruited by stress signal MCP-1) release inflammatory
peptides insulin resistance in surrounding tissues
- Parenchymal cells - liver (lepatocyte)
- skin (keratinocyte)
- Non-parenchymal cells (stomal cells) cells that support functional/parenchymal cells
Blood stem cell
Myeloid stem cell Lymphoid stem cell
Red blood cells Myeloblast Platelets Lymphoblast
Granulocytes NK cell B lymphocyte T lymphocyte
- Invader enters body macrophage engulfs invader places piece of the invader on its surface
with the self (MHC) marker presents antigen to Tcell secrets a chemical that activates Tcell
activates Naïve B cell/Naïve cyotoxic Tcell
- From Naïve B cell (antibody based immunity B lymphocyte) cell divides plasma cell
secretes antibodies targets pathogens or outside toxins memory B cells (continued
surveillance, quick more robust response)
- From Naïve B cell (cell-based immunity T-lymphocyte) cell divides effector cytotoxic T
cell targets cell infected with intracellular pathogen (cancer) Memory cytotoxic T cell
(continued surveillance, quick more robust response)
- Too little suppressor response autoimmune disease, allergies, etc.
- Too much suppressor response possible connect to cancer, increased incidence of infectious
- T regulatory regulate production of T helper cells
- Cardio vascular system made of 3 parts: heart, blood vessels and blood
- Deoxygenated blood returns to right side (pulmonary side), pulmonary artery
- Oxygenated blood leaves left side (systemic side), pulmonary vein
- High velocity and small surface area in blood vessels direct, rapid conductance of blood
- Low velocity and large surface area optimal exchange
- Moved against gravity by - contracting skeletal muscles
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