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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1080
Professor
David Dyck
Semester
Fall

Description
LECTURE 9 - Hormones modulate - growth and development - Homeostasis - reproduction Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary Gland Liver Bone Muscle Adipose Stimulates release of IGF Can still grow in adulthood Promotes lipolysis - Argine alone raises GH levels at least 100% - Argine and exercise increase GH levels by 200% - Exercise alone increases GH levels by 300-500% - 5mg of melatonin increased GH levels after exercising - Sucking stimulates nerves  impulses travel along nerves to hypothalamus  signals posterior pituitary to release OT  OT travels through bloodstream to mammary glands  milk ejected - Neuro hormones release hormones directly into bloodstream - Norepinephrine - increases epinephrine - decreases insulin - Posterior pituitary releases - neuro hormones generated I the hypothalamus circulation - oxytocin (OT) and antidiveric hormone (ADH) - Anterior Pituitary - PRH  breasts - TRH  TSH -> thyroid gland  TH - CRH ACTH  adrenal cortex cortisol - GHRH  GH  liver  insulin-like growth factors  cells throughout body - GnRH  LH  Gonads (male)  androgens  FSH  gonads (female)  estrogen, progesterone - Anterior pituitary acts like a gland -> contains endocrine cells that release hormones LECTURE 10 - Nonspecific physical and chemical surface barriers, internal cellular and chemical defense then immune response - Defensive cells - phagocytic cells: neutrophils (first on scene, consume almost anything) and macrophages (consume almost anything) - Eosinophils: kill parasites and discharge enzymes that digest target - Natural killer cells: release perforin and proteases and kill invading organisms (cancer cells) - Compliment system (system of 20+ proteins) - stimulates histamine release  promotes phagocytosis  kills bacteria  enhances inflammation - activated by - polysaccharides on bacteria surface - antigen/antibody complexes - deactivated by proteins in blood - Inflammation – widening of blood capillaries  defensive cells  speeds healing - Fever - slows growth of bacteria - speeds up body defenses - Infection  macrophages  pyrogenic cytokines  (microbial toxins also lead to this point) hypothalamic endothelium  PGE2  cyclic  elevated thermoregulatory set point  heat production on - Adipocytes increase in size and number during obesity  reduced blood flow  cell death  macrophages infiltrate areas (recruited by stress signal MCP-1)  release inflammatory peptides  insulin resistance in surrounding tissues - Parenchymal cells - liver (lepatocyte) - skin (keratinocyte) - Non-parenchymal cells (stomal cells)  cells that support functional/parenchymal cells LECTURE 11 Blood stem cell Myeloid stem cell Lymphoid stem cell Red blood cells Myeloblast Platelets Lymphoblast Granulocytes NK cell B lymphocyte T lymphocyte - Invader enters body  macrophage engulfs invader  places piece of the invader on its surface with the self (MHC) marker  presents antigen to Tcell  secrets a chemical that activates Tcell activates Naïve B cell/Naïve cyotoxic Tcell - From Naïve B cell (antibody based immunity – B lymphocyte) cell divides  plasma cell  secretes antibodies  targets pathogens or outside toxins memory B cells (continued surveillance, quick more robust response) - From Naïve B cell (cell-based immunity – T-lymphocyte)  cell divides  effector cytotoxic T cell  targets cell infected with intracellular pathogen (cancer)  Memory cytotoxic T cell (continued surveillance, quick more robust response) - Too little suppressor response – autoimmune disease, allergies, etc. - Too much suppressor response – possible connect to cancer, increased incidence of infectious diseases - T regulatory regulate production of T helper cells LECTURE 12 - Cardio vascular system made of 3 parts: heart, blood vessels and blood - Deoxygenated blood – returns to right side (pulmonary side), pulmonary artery - Oxygenated blood – leaves left side (systemic side), pulmonary vein - High velocity and small surface area in blood vessels – direct, rapid conductance of blood - Low velocity and large surface area – optimal exchange - Moved against gravity by - contracting skeletal muscles - pressure difference, movement of thoracic cavity during breathing - valves - Varicose veins – allow backwards flow of blood and pooling - Heart made of myocardium - Heart muscles different from skeletal - neural input (automatic) - fast gap junctions - high oxidative capacity (lots of mitochondria) - Cardiac cycle  contraction on atria  contraction of ventricles  rest when neither chamber is contracting - Contraction (systole) 120/80 - Relaxation (diastole) 120/80 - Electrical signal propagated by - nodes - nerves (bundle of his) - Intercalated disks (gap junctions) - Sympathetic innervation increases heart rate - Parasympathetic innervation decreases heart rate - Epinephrine increases strength of each contraction - Atherosclerosis - narrowing of arteries due to plaque - caused by elevated blood lipids - catheter and babon inserted to treat coronary artery blockage put in stent - Catheter and babon inserted to treat coronary artery blockage (put in stent) LECTURE 13 - Flow = pressure/resistance - MAP (m
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