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BIOL 1080 Final: BIOL final exam review

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BIOL 1080
Bill Bettger

Lecture 10: p. 162-173 (Important figures: 2, 10 and 13) The Endocrine System (ES) – coordinates growth, development and reproduction Functions and Mechanism of Hormones • Two types of glands • Endocrine (directly to blood): made of secretory cells, release hormones (and Exocrine-carried to specific locations) • Endocrine System: endocrine glands and organs containing endocrine tissue *p.163 Figure2* • Major endocrine glands: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pineal • Organs with endocrine tissue: hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, heart, ovaries and placenta Hormones as Chemical Messengers • Hormones are the chemical messengers of ES • Released in small amounts from glands/tissues to bloodstream • Come in contact with almost all cells, but only affect target cells • Target cells have receptors (protein molecules that recognize/bind to hormones • Cells without receptors are unaffected • Lipid-soluble: include steroid hormones (secreted by ovaries, testes, adrenal glands) • Move easily through plasma membrane • Bind to receptor inside cell • Water-soluble: include proteins, peptides • Cannot cross plasma membrane • Bind to receptor on membrane (Ex: Epinephrine) Feedback Mechanisms and Secretion of Hormones • Homeostasis: keeps body’s internal environment relatively constant • Achieved through negative feedback (i.e. insulin levels, blood calcium levels) • Sometimes hormones are regulated by positive feedback (i.e. childbirth-oxytocin) Interactions between Hormones • Antagonistic: effect of one opposes other (i.e. glucagon alpha increase vs. insulin beta decrease glucose – released from pancreas, are islets of Langerhans) • Synergistic: response of a tissue to two hormones is greater than response to each individually • Permissive: one hormone must be present for other to work How do Nervous and Endocrine interact? • Nerves release neurohormones to blood • Nerve signals via neurotransmitters can modulate hormone secretion • Neuron in CNS and PNS have receptors for hormones Pituitary Gland • Size of a pea • Connected to hypothalamus which regulates body temperature, sleeping and water balance • Anterior and posterior • Anterior is larger, secretes releasing (more secretion)/inhibiting hormones (less secretion) • Releases GH (stimulate growth, faster rates of cell division) • Too much GH in children = gigantism • Too little GH in children = pituitary dwarfism • Secretes prolactin (stimulates mammary glands to produce milk) • Posterior does not produce hormones on its own • Signals hypothalamus to produce antidiuretic hormone (conserve water, decrease pee) • Deficiency of ADH: dehydration • Signals hypothalamus to release OT (childbirth and stimulate milk ejection in response to sucking stimulus of infant) *p. 171 Figure 10* Thyroid Gland • In front of neck • Releases TH (target cells are usually most cells) • TH regulates metabolic rate, heat production, maintains blood pressure, promotes normal development • Too little secretion of TH to fetus: cretinism (delayed mental and sexual development) • Too much secretion of TH: Grave’s disease (enlarged thyroid, overproduction of hormones) • Secretes CT: regulates Ca concentrations in blood (when levels are too high) *p. 173 Figure 13* Parathyroid Gland • Four small round masses in thyroid gland • Secrete PTH when blood calcium levels are too low to release Ca from bone store for bloodstream Prohibited in completion: Stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticoids, cannabinoids Lecture 11: p. 174-188 Adrenal Glands • Size of almond, sit on top of kidneys • Outer region (adrenal cortex) – secretes steroids (lipid-soluble) (mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, gonadocorticoids) • inner region (adrenal medulla) – secretes water-soluble (norepinephrine, epinephrine) Adrenal Cortex (outer region) • Gonadocorticoids are male/female sex hormones o Estrogen, and androgens (insignificant in men) (both M/F) o Menopause: DECREASE in estrogen secretion • Mineralocorticoids affect mineral/water homeostasis (primary is aldosterone – acts on kidneys to increase reabsorption of Na into blood, promotes urinary excretion of K) o Addison’s disease: JFK had this! Under secretion of aldosterone, causes fatigue, weight loss, stress, bronzing of skin • Glucocorticoids affect glucose levels, act on liver to promote fat conversion to sugar, also inhibit inflammatory responses (ex: cortisone, cortisol, corticosterone) o Cushing’s: too much cortisol, body fat redistributes, fatigue, high blood pressure Adrenal Medulla (inner region) • Secretes norepinephrine and epinephrine • Flight-or-fight response • Response to these hormones: increased heart rate, breathing rate, blood sugar levels Pancreas • Located behind stomach • Endocrines cells occur in PANCREATIC ISLETS • Alpha cells produce glucAgon (increase glucose levels) *p.178 Figure 18* • Beta cells produce insulin (decrease glucose levels) o Diabetes: too little insulin (HIGH BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS) Thymus Gland • Behind breastbone atop of heart • Secretes thymopoietin and thymosin • Promote maturation of white blood cells/defense system Pineal Gland • Tiny gland, center of brain • Produces melatonin Local Support and Defense System (4 component of CCN) *p.183 Figure 1* • 1. Keep pathogens out of body (nonspecific, uses chemical and physical surface barriers) • 2. Attack any pathogens inside body (nonspecific, uses intracellular and chemical defences) • 3. Destroy specific pathogens inside the body (specific, immune response) • 1 & 2 = “Innate immune system” • 3 = “Adaptive immune system” • Formed by non-parenchymal cells (least prominent cells of organs) such as nerve endings, capillary cells (blood supply), T and B cells (lymphoid origin), macrophages/neutrophils and dendritic/mast cells (myeloid origin), fibroblast/myofibroblast/pericyte cells and stem cells (regenerative capacity) Physical Barriers (1 line) • Unbroken skin • Dead skin cells filled with keratin (makes skin waterproof and resistant to toxins) • Skin cells continuously shed and replaced, taking away germs • Mucus lining in digestive/respiratory systems (sticky, prevents further entrance of microbes) Chemical Barriers (1 line) • Skin provides chemical protection against invaders (sweat and oil) • Acidity of sweat/oil/urine/vag prevents bacterial growth/kills bacteria • HCl lining of stomach destroys bacteria nd • Saliva and tears have enzyme called lysozyme, kills bacteria (destroys cell walls) 2 line of defense Defensive cells • Phagocytic cells (neutrophils and macrophages) engulf invading organisms • Eosinophils kill parasites • Natural killer cells kill invading organisms and cancer cells Defensive Proteins • Interferon proteins slow spread of disease • Compliment System stimulates histamine release, promotes phagocytosis, kills bacteria, enhances inflammation *p. 186 Figure 5* Inflammation *p. 187 Figure 6* • Blood vessels widen • Increased capillary permeability • Redness, heat (increased blood flow), swelling (accumulation of fluid, permits injured area to rest) and pain • Brings in defensive cells, speeds healing Fever • Abnormally high body temperature (higher set point) • Speeds body defences, slows bacteria growth Disease of the pancreas: Pancreatitis, diabetes, cancer, CF, exocrine pancreas insufficiency Lecture 12: p. 188-200 Third line Defense – Immune Response • Target specific pathogen • Involves lymphatic system (produces necessary cells) • Has MEMORY: immune system remembers same pathogens years later and attacks so quickly that illness cannot arise for a second time Distinguishing self from nonself • To fight pathogens, must distinguish body cell from pathogen • Each body cell has identifiers: MHC markers • Pathogen that trigger immune response is an ANTIGEN • White blood cells (lymphocytes) responsible for memory • B (mature in bone marrow) and T lymphocytes (mature in thymus): BOTH from bone marrow o T distinguish body cells and pathogens, destroy pathogens o Both programmed to recognize particular antigen • Effector cells: carry out attack • Memory cells: remember pathogen, mount intense response to invaders that appear again Antibody-mediated responses: Defend against antigens found travelling freely in intracellular body fluids (Naïve B cell) Cell-mediated immune responses: Protect against cellular pathogens and abnormal/infected cells (Naïve cytotoxic T cell) Steps of Immune Response • 1. THREAT: cell lacking MHC marker is found • 2. DETECTION: roaming macrophages and phagocytic cells engulf material • 3. ALERT: macrophages (APC) alert helper T cells (trigger for the rest of immune system) • 4. ALARM: helper T cell releases its own chemical messengers to call on T (cell-mediated) and B (antibody-mediated) cells that can bind to antigen • 5. BUILDING SPECIFIC DEFENSES: T and B cells divide rapidly, result is clone population (clonal selection) specialised to fight antigen (analogy: bakery with sample cookies on display, big batch is made at request of customer) • 6.1 DEFENSE: (antibody-mediated response) B cells divide and produce effector cells that secrete antibodies that bind to antigens on cell surface. Antibodies defend by PLAN: o Precipitation (antigen-antibody complex precipitate, easier phagocytosis) o Lysis COMPLEMENT SYSTEM: pokes holes/pops target cells o Attraction of phagocytes o Neutralization (preventing viruses/toxins from causing harm by binding to them) • 6.2 DEFENSE: (cell-mediated response) T cells divide, destruction of antigen-bearing cells o Perforin cause holes to form in target cells, cell disintegrates, cytotoxic T cell moves on to other infected cell (cancer cell, cells of organ transplants) • 7. CONTINUED SURVEILLANCE • 8. WITHDRAWL OF FORCES: suppressor T cells dampen B and T cell activity After battle? Memory! (In form of Memory B cells, Memory Helper T cells and Memory Cytotoxic T cells) Active and Passive Immunity • Active: actively defends by producing memory B cells and T cells after exposure to antigen o Can be activated through vaccination • Passive: person receives antibodies produced by someone/thing else (pregnant woman to fetus; can also be acquired through injection) Monoclonal antibodies: Groups of identical antibodies that bind to one specific antigen (home pregnancy tests, screening for certain diseases, cancer treatment) Problems of the Immune System • Autoimmune disorders • Immune system fails to distinguish between self and nonself • Attacks tissues and organs; can be organ specific or nonspecific • Lymphocytes that do not learn to make distinction, are destroyed • Disease-causing organisms resemble normal body cells (distinction is difficult) • Allergies • Overreaction of immune system to antigen (Hay fever, food, bee stings) • Anaphylactic shock: extreme rxn, occurs min after exposure; fatal but most ppl survive • Can be supressed by drugs (antihistamines, immunotherapy) Lecture 13: p. 202-215 Functions of the Blood • Transport gases to/from cells, wastes away from cells • White blood cells: immunity, clotting • Buffers: acid-base balance • Regulate body temperature Plasma • 55% composition of blood • Plasma is the medium to transport materials • Substances dissolve in plasma when carried • Plasma proteins (7% of plasma), balance water flood between cells and blood (albumins, globulins and clotting proteins) o Albumins for water balance o Globulins transport fats and antibodies to fight disease Formed Elements *p.204 Figure 1* • Transported by plasma • Platelets, red/white blood cells • Formed in red bone marrow, also location of undifferentiated (stem) cells Platelets • Essential to blood clotting (also called thrombocytes) • Stopping blood loss White Blood Cells (leukocytes - defense against disease) • Housekeeping duties • WBCs make up 1% of blood • WBCs are nucleated • Not confined to circulatory system (go where infection is at) • Engulf invaders using phagocytosis (ex. Macrophages) • Two groups: o 1. Granulocytes: these have granules in cytoplasm; granules contain chemicals (“weapons”) to destroy enemies (3 types) • Neutrophils: most abundant, “front-line soldiers”, arrive at site first, perform phagocytosis, engulf a dozen bacteria, pus = dead neutrophils • Eosinophils: fight PARASITES, lessen allergy severity (engulf antibody-allergen complexes) • Basophils: release HISTAMINE (attracts WBCs), stimulates blood flow (dilation of vessels) o 2. Agranulocytes: little/no granules (2 types) • Monocytes: largest formed element, develop into macrophages to engulf bad • Lymphocytes: B cells (produce antibodies that recognize antigens on molecules) & T (defensive white cells) Red Blood Cells and Transport of Oxygen • RBCs are called erythrocytes • Most numerous blood cell • Pick up O in lungs, transport C2 from cells to lungs RBCs and Hemoglobin • Shape is suited to function (maximal SA for gas exchange) • Indent on each side • Each RBC packed with hemoglobin (O-binding pigment, gives red colour, adapted to carry oxygen) Life Cycle of Red Blood Cells • Immature cell becomes factory for hemoglobin (nucleus is pushed out) • Structural metamorphosis (acquires indented shape) • RBCs leaves bone marrow, enters bloodstream • Lives for about 120 days (travels about 100 km) • Lifespan limited by lack of nucleus (repairs) • Liver and spleen = RBC graveyard • Dying cells engulfed by macrophages • Blood loss = decreased oxygen capacity to RBCs, kidneys release hormone erythropoietin to step up RBC production Disorders of RBCs • Anemia – reduction in O carrying capacity of RBCs • Iron-deficiency anemia – too little iron in diet/caused by menstrual flow/anemia • Sickle-celled anemia – abnormal hemoglobin (RBCs deform) • Pernicious anemia – number of RBCs drops (production is impaired) Disorders of White Blood Cells • Mono “kissing disease”, strikes when immune resistance is low (stress) • Leukemia – cancer of white blood cells, uncontrollable multiplication, remain immature and unable to defend body Blood Donations: 1 donation = 1 pint Blood Clotting *p. 214 Figure 9* • Immediate response to bleeding is vessel constriction • Platelets then form plug that seals wound • Aspirin thin blood, prevents clot formation • Hemophilia: genetic fault in genes to produce clotting factors • After wound heals, enzyme plasmin dissolves clot Lecture 14: p. 215-238 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM • Transport network • Heart rate/vessel dilation constantly being adjusted in response to body’s changing needs Blood Vessels *p. 217 Figure 11* • Blood carried away from heart in arteries that branch into narrower arterioles • Arterioles lead to capillaries (direct exchange to cells) • Capillaries merge into venules, then into veins (returned waste/deoxygenated blood to heart) • Lining of lumen is endothelium, smooth non-friction surface Arteries • Transport away from heart • Inner layer: endothelium; Middle layer: elastic fibers and layers of smooth muscle (contraction, maintain even pressure); Outer layer: connective tissue (collagen), support and strength • Pulse: pressure wave, moves along arteries with each beat • Vasoconstriction: arteries get narrower, blood flow reduced • Vasodilation: artery relaxes, gets bigger, more blood flow • Aneurysm: arteriole wall is weakened, blood flow causes outward swelling, risk of bursting and blood loss, no bursting = formation of lethal blood clots • Arterioles: same structure as arteries (smaller) • Regulate blood pressure • Gatekeepers for capillary networks • Regulate amount of blood reaching cells • Capillaries: microscopic, connect arterioles and venules • Exchange of materials between blood and cells • Only one layer for easy exchange • Exchange is through slit between endothelial cells • So small RBCs travel in single file • Capillary bed = network serving specific area • Precapillary sphincter is between arterioles and capillaries, regulates blood flow Veins • Capillaries merge into venules; venules merge into veins • Larger than arteries (hold lots of blood) • Same three layers • Defying gravity • Valves prevent backflow up to heart *p.221 Figure 15* • Contractions of skeletal muscles squeeze veins, pressure towards heart • Breathing induces pressure towards heart HEART *p.224 Figure 16* • Size of fist, incredible biological pump • Beats about 72 times/min (100,000 everyday!!) • 3 layers, lots of mitochondria (fatigue resistant) o Myocardium: Wall of heart, cardiac muscle, contractions/pumping o Endocardium: Thin lining in cavities, smooth, reduces friction o Pericardium: Sac that holds heart in place • Heart has two halves (two separate pumps separated by septum) o Right: pumps blood to lungs to pick up O; Left: pumps blood to body to pick up wastes • Each half has an atrium (upper, receive blood) and a ventricle (lower, main pumps) • Atrioventricular valves are between atrium and ventricle • Semilunar valves (prevent backflow) between ventricles and either aorta or pulmonary artery TWO CIRCUITS OF BLOOD FLOW *p. 225 Figure 18* • Right side pumps blood through pulmonary circuit (to and from lungs) o Right atrium -> AV valve -> right ventricle -> pulmonary SL valve -> pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary artery -> lungs -> pulmonary veins -> systemic circuit • Left side pumps blood through systemic circuit (to and from body tissues) o Left atrium -> AV valve -> left ventricle -> aortic SL valve ->aorta -> body tissues -> inferior or superior vena cava -> pulmonary circuit • Prevents high oxygenated from mixing with low oxygenated • Heart murmur: both healthy/diseased people, swooshing heart sounds, malfunctioning valves, backflow, heart is strained, has to work harder Coronary Circulation *p. 227 Figure 19* • Services tissues of the heart (nutrients, O) • Branch off of aorta (coronary arteries) Internal Conduction System • Heart outside of body will continue to beat (DEAD MAN’S CHEST!!!!!) • Tendency to beat is intrinsic, within the heart itself • Cells beat in union, cells connected by intercalated disks (mechanically/electrically couple cells) • Heart tempo set by cluster of specialized cells (sinoatrial node), located in right atrium • Send out impulses to initiate each beat (biological pacemaker) • Signal reaches Atrioventricular node, relays message through Atrioventricular bundle, divide into Purkinje fibres (rapid spread of impulse through ventricles) • Irregular contractions of ventricles is ventricular fibrillation (ventricles become useless, circulation stops) • Defibrillator can provide lifesaving “shock” or stimulus to get heart beating again • Heart has problems regulating beat, pacemaker can be surgically implanted Electrodiagram • Electrodes placed on body surface can detect electrical events of heart • Trace activity (ECG, EKG) Blood Pressure • Force exerted by the blood against walls of blood vessels • Ideally, pressure great enough to circulate blood without posing stress on heart and vessels • Highest when ventricles contract (blood is forced into arteries) • Systolic: contraction; highest pressure, healthy adult range is 110-120 mmHg • Diastolic: ventricle relaxation; lowest healthy adult range is 70-80 mmHg Cardiovascular Disease • High Blood Pressure (hypertension) can lead to stroke (limited O to brain) • Damages heart, brain, blood vessels and kidneys • Heart has to work harder, enlarges
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