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Bio 1080 midterm review.docx

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BIOL 1080

Bio 1080: Midterm Review: Chapter 1 review: 7 Basic Characteristics of all living things:  Living things contain nucleic acid, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids  Living things are composed of cells  Living things grow and reproduce  Living things/cells use energy and raw material  Living things respond to their environment  Living things maintain homeostasis  Population of living things evolve and have adaptive traits Levels of organization of life:  Molecule  Individual  Biosphere  Cell  Population  Organ  Community  Organ system  Ecosystem Terms and Facts:  Theory: A well-supported and wide ranging explanation of some aspect of the physical universe  Statistical significance: Measure of the possibility that the results were due to chance  Clinical trial: The studies on humans based on newly developed drugs  Informed consent: Consent that a participant must take/sign in which he/she agrees that there are possible harmful effects of the new drug that they will be tested on  Placebo: innocuous, nondrug substance made to look like the drug being tested  Epidemiological Studies: Researchers look at patterns that occur within large populations (ex. air pollution on asthma effect) 12 Major Organ Systems of the Body:  Integumentary System: - Protects the underlying skin  Skeletal System: - Attachment for muscles - Protects organs/ produces blood cells - Stores calcium  Muscular system: - Moves body and maintains posture - Transport of fluids - Generation of heat  Nervous system: - Regulations and functions via neurons  Endocrine System: - Regulations and functions via hormones  Cardiovascular system: - Transports nutrients, respiratory gases, waste and heat - Transports immune cells and antibodies - Regulates pH  Lymphatic System: - Returns tissue fluids to blood stream - Protects against infection and disease  Respiratory System: - Exchange respiratory gases with the environment  Digestive System: - Physical and chemical breakdown of food - Absorbs, processes, stores food  Urinary System: - Maintains constant internal environment thru the excretion of nitrogenous waste  Reproductive System: - Produce and secrete hormones - Produces and releases eggs and sperm cells Homeostasis:  Ability to maintain a relatively stable internal temperature despite changes in the external environment  Meaning to stay the same  Try to keep body temperature around the set point Negative feedback mechanism:  Corrective measures that slow or reverse a variation from the normal value of a factor, like glucose or body temperature back to its normal value.  Has 3 components:  Receptor (sensor, monitors environment): - Detects change in internal or external environment  Control Center - receives and integrates signals form receptors and selects an appropriate response  Effector: - Often a muscle or gland that carries out the selected response Homeostatic control of Blood Calcium:  An elevation in blood calcium level would be sensed by receptors  Control center would stimulate the thyroid gland to increase calcitonin;  Which lowers blood calcium Level  If there is a decrease in blood calcium, control center would stimulate the parathyroid gland  which increases parathyroid hormone and so raises the calcium level Homeostatic control of core body temperature:  Control center is hypothalamus  Increase in Body temp: - Thermo receptors in skin and body send signal to hypothalamus - Stimulates the activation of sweat glands - Blood vessels will widen  Decrease in Body temp: - Stimulates skeletal muscle to cause shivering - Blood vessels contract Terms and Facts:  Organ: Structure composed of two or more different tissues that work together to perform a specific function  Organs system: a group of organs with a common function  Tissue: a group of cells of similar type that work together to serve a common function 4 Primary tissues in humans:  Epithelial tissue  Connective tissue  Muscle tissue  Nervous tissue Chapter 2 Review: Biomedical Model of illness:  Symptom of illness is considered to have an underlying pathology  Removal of pathology will lead to restored health  Biomedical view has been described as reductionist  The basic idea that mind, matter (body) and human behaviour can all be reduced to, and explained at the levels of cells, neural activity or biochemical activity. Biopsychosocial model of illness:  View that diseases and symptoms can be explained by a combination of physical, social, cultural and psychological Terms, Fact:  Dualism: The idea that the mind and body are separate entities Who Definition of Health:  " state of complete physical, mental and social well-being"  Development of health targets in order to reduce cancer, stroke and heart disease Cross-cultural perspectives of health:  Normal health varies across cultures Ex: a sibling with a disability may affect the other sibling's chances of getting married  What is normal and what is sick in a given culture can have all sorts of consequences Influence of lifestyle and aging on beliefs about health:  Development theories:  Learning - change in knowledge, skill or ability  Experience - what we do, see etc.  Maturation - Thought , behaviour or physical growth  Influenced not only by aging, but by illness, disability which can be experienced by age Aging:  Sensorimotor (birth-2yrs) - Understanding the world thru sensing and movements  Pre-operational (2-7yrs) - Logical thinking and language develops  Concrete Operational (7-11yrs) - Logic develops hugely - Can perform mental arithmetic  Formal Operational (12 and up+) - Development of deductive reasoning  Illness concept for sensorimotor and pre-operational children:  Incomprehension - irrelevent answers  Phenominism - Usually a sign or sound the child has with illnes  Contagion - illness from a person or object close by  Illness concept for concrete Operational children:  Contamination - understanding that illness can have multiple symptoms  Interalisation - Understands that illness is within the body  Illness concept for Adolesence:  Physiological - Can define illness in terms of specific body organs and functions  Psychophysiological - Grasping the idea that mind on body interact - Understands role of stress, worry etc  Most common disease when aging:  Arthritis - for women over 65  Cardiovascular - for men over 65  Increase of aging causes:  Sensory and motor losses  Being Physically impaired  Elderly underestimating their own physical capacities Terms, Facts:  Collectivist: - Emphasizes the individual as part of a wider unit and places emphasis on actions motivated by collective.  Individualistic: - Places responsibility at the feet of the individual; thus behaviour is often driven by individual needs and wants 7 Dimensions of health:  Physical Health: - Physical characteristics - Ability to perform activities  Social health: - Capacity of satisfying interpersonal relationships  Mental health: - Ability to think clearly, reason and analyze. - Learning from success and failures  Occupational health: - Satisfaction received from his/her career. - Involves maintaining a balance btwn work and leisure  Emotional health: - "feeling" component of health - Ability to effectively and appropriately express emotions  Environmental health: - Appreciation of the external environment and the role individuals play in preserving, protecting and improving it.  Spiritual health: - Referring to the deepest or innermost part of you helps you to understand the world and your role in it. - Knowing who you are and what our purpose is Prevention/Preventive medicine:  Prevention: Taking action now to avoid becoming sick or less well later  Taking preventive measures: - Primary measures: Actions designed to prevent health problems - Secondary measures: Early recognition of a health problem to eliminate or reduce it before an even more serious illness develops. - Tertiary: Treatment or rehabilitation efforts made after a person has become sick - Not really a prevention but a response after illness has developed Terms, Facts:  Wellness: - Similar to health - Ever-changing process in which a person attempts to reach his/her potential  Health promotion: - a combination of the dimensions of health which enhances healthy lifestyle choices to help people change negative health attitudes and behaviour. Leading Causes of death:  Heart disease  Malignant neoplasms  Cerebrovascular disease  Respiratory disease  Accidents  Diabetes mellitus 5 Defining ideas of biology:  The cell  The gene  Evolution by natural selection  Life as chemistry  Logic units and information flow in biological systems 6 Biological concepts of health:  Each adult human can be considered as a unique biological system: - Systems biology is the study of organisms as biological systems - Organisms exhibit "emergent properties" which cannot be reduced to the sum of their component parts  Adult human biological system has a CCN (control and communication network) that coordinates the function of the person: - Major Components of the CCN are the CNS, PNS, Endocrine, the local control and defence system.  The CCN is the logic unit of the human adult; role is to gather and direct information flow: - Properties of CCN:  Controls and coordinates the function of physiological systems and individual organs (network is always 'ON' and working)  Distributed throughout the body  Each component of the network has multiple functions; which may exert the same coordinate and control by different mechanisms in different situations  Four major components are separable  Information flow within the network, is via chemical-based and cell-cell communication  CCN is the locus of health in the adult human: - Health and healing (literally becomes a whole) - Health of the individual is the core unit of health - Inputs of health:  Genetics, environment, lifestyle/healthcare - Outputs of health:  7 Dimensions of health  Both aging and disease are concepts and processes which represent a compromised function/structure of the CCN: - 4 major branches of CCN:  Diabetes (Endocrine System)  Cancer (Local support and defence system)  Depression (CNS)  Carpal tunnel syndrome (PNS)  Systems Biology/CCN are based on an approach to health, disease and aging which is anticipated to facilitate enhanced medical and healthcare practice: - Understanding of human health derived from improvements in 'omics' analysis (genes, protein, metabolites and cytokines) P4 medicine:  Personalized: - Medicine will be directed towards the biochemical and physiological individuality of the patient  Predictive: - Combination of human biological system and technology will allow us to predict, more accurately.  Preventive: - With personalized, predictive knowledge the medical and healthcare system can then apply preventive medicine to avoid/delay the onset of diseases.  Participatory: - Preventive medicine intervention require more participation and engagement Terms, Facts:  New biology: - Focus for both biological research and biological education  Anthropocentrism:  Reductionism:  Biocentrism:  Holism: Chapter 3 Review: Direct communication thru gap junctions: - Gap junction's link adjacent cells; formed by plasma membrane proteins called connexins. - Form structures called connexons - Connexons form channels that allow ions and small molecules to pass directly from one cell to another. - Gap junction electrically couples the cells, (movement of ions) - Electrical signals from cell to cell - Metabolically couples the cells - small particles - One cell can provide necessary nutrients to other cells - Also found in glands and btwn neurons in the brain and retina; functions in communication Indirect communication thru chemical messengers: - Communicate thru chemical messengers via ligands - Molecules that bind to proteins reversibly - Communication where one cell releases a chemical into the interstitial fluid by secretion in which a target cell responds to the chemical messenger - Have receptors that specifically recognize and bind the messenger Functional Classification of chemical messengers:  3 main categories: - Paracrines - Neurotransmitters - Hormones Paracrines:  Chemicals that communicate with neighbouring cells  Can reach the target cell by simple diffusion when close enough  Include growth factors, clotting factors, cytoknines - Histomine, chemical important in allergic reactions and inflammation - Autocrines: Subclass of paracrines that act on the same cell that secreted them Hormones:  Chemical released from endocrine glands into the interstitial fluid where they can diffuse into the blood.  Bloodstream distributes a hormone to all cells of the body -ex: Insulin Neurotransmitters:  Chemicals released into interstitial fluid from nervous systems cells called neurons.  Released from specialized portion of neuron called axon terminal  Juncture btwn target cell and axon terminal is called a synapse  Communication by neurotransmitters is called synaptic signalling  Cell that releases the neurotransmitter is called the pre-synaptic neuron  Target cell is called post-synaptic cell - ex: acetylcholine: which is released by neurons that trigger contraction of skeletal muscle Transport of Messengers: - Messenger must reach and then bind to receptors on target cells for signals to be transmitted. - Messengers can bind to certain parts on a receptor - Hydrophilic messengers are secreted by exocytosis, enter the bloodstream, and dissolve in the plasma - Hydrophobic messengers are secreted by simple diffusion and then enter the bloodstream.  Most of the messenger molecules are transported bound to carrier proteins Receptor Specificity:  Receptor A, is specific for messenger 1  Receptor B, is specific for messenger 2  Receptor C, is specific for messenger 3 Effects of messenger concentr
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