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BIOL 1080 Midterm Notes (Lectures 1-9).docx

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BIOL 1080
Jim Kirkland

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BIOL 1080 Midterm Notes (Lectures 1-9) Chapter 1A 7 Basic Characteristics of all Living Things 1) Living things contain nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids 2) Living things are composed of cells – the smallest units of life 3) Living things grow and reproduce 4) Living things use energy and raw materials Metabolism – all chemical reactions that occur within the cells of living things 5) Living things respond to their environment 6) Living things maintain homeostasis 7) Populations of living things evolve and have adaptive traits Levels of Organization of Life 1) Molecule 2) Cell 3) Tissue 4) Organ 5) Organ Systems 6) Individual 7) Population 8) Community 9) Ecosystem 10) Biosphere Terms Statistical Significance – a measure of the probability that the results were due to chance Theory – a well-supported and wide-ranging explanation of some aspect of the physical universe Placebo – an innocuous nondrug substance made to look like the drug being tested Informed Consent – an informed consent document lists all the possible harmful effects of the drug or treatment and must be signed before a person can take part in the study Epidemiological Studies – the science of the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations Chapter 1D 12 Major Organ Systems of the Body 1) Integumentary System – protects underlying tissues, provides skin sensation, helps regulate body temperature, synthesizes vitamin D 2) Skeletal System – attachment for muscles, protects organs, stores Ca and P, produces blood cells 3) Muscular System – moves body and maintains posture, internal transport of fluids, generation of heat 4) Endocrine System – regulates and integrates body functions via hormones 5) Cardiovascular System – transports nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and heat, transports immune cells and antibodies, transports hormones, regulates pH 6) Lymphatic System – returns tissue fluids to bloodstream, protects against infections/disease 7) Respiratory System – exchanges respiratory gases with the environment 8) Digestive System – physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorbs processes and stores food 9) Urinary System – maintains constant internal environment through the excretion of nitrogenous wastes 10) Nervous System – regulates and integrates body functions via neurons 11) Reproductive System – produces and secrets hormones, produces and releases egg and sperm cells, houses embryo/fetus Homeostatic Control of Blood Calcium - an elevation in blood calcium level would be sensed by receptors - in response the thyroid gland increases production of calcitonin (lowers blood calcium level) - low blood calcium level results in parathyroid glands to increase production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) which increases blood calcium levels Homeostatic Control of Core Body Temperature Temperature Rises - blood vessels in skin widen - sweat glands increase activity Temperature Drops - blood vessels in skin contract - skeletal muscles cause shivering Terms Tissue – a group of cells of similar type that work together to serve a common function Organ – a structure composed of two or more different tissues that work together to perform a specific function Organ System – a group of organs with a common function ex. Respiratory system Receptor – detects change in the internal or external environment Control Centre – determines the factor’s set point – the level or range that is normal for the factor in question Effector – often a muscle or gland that carries out the selected response Chapter 2A Biomedical Model of Illness - a symptom of illness is considered to have an underlying pathology that will hopefully, but not inevitably, be cured through medical intervention - the assumption is that the removal of the pathology will result in restored health - biomedical view has been described as reductionist: the basic idea that mind body and human behaviour can all be reduced to and explained at the level of cells, neural activity, or biomedical activity Biopsychosocial Model of Illness - psychological and social factors can add to biological or biomedical explanations and understanding of health and illness experiences - employed in health psychology as well as in several allied professions, such as occupational therapy and in the medical profession (to a growing extent) - a view that diseases and symptoms can be explained by a combination of physical, social, cultural and psychological factors Terms Dualism – the idea that the mind and body are separate entities The root of the word “health” is wholeness Chapter 2B WHO Definition of Health - sees individuals as ideally deserving of a positive state, an overall feeling of wellbeing, fully functioning, however was changed to… - “the attainment by all citizens of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life” Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Health - there is growing evidence that Westernised views of health differ in various ways from conceptualizations of health in non-westernised civilizations Influence of lifestyle and aging on beliefs about health - psychological wellbeing, social and emotional health are not only influenced by the aging process, they are also affected by illness, disability, and hospitalization, all of which can be experienced at any age Adolescence • physiological – children from around 11 years old reach a physiological understanding, and most can now define illness in terms of specific bodily organs or functions • psychophysiological – in later adolescence and adulthood, many people grasp the idea that mind and body inte
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