BIOL 1080 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Thyroid, Respiratory System, Parathyroid Gland

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1080
Professor
BIOL 1080 Midterm Notes (Lectures 1-9)
Chapter 1A
7 Basic Characteristics of all Living Things
1) Living things contain nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids
2) Living things are composed of cells the smallest units of life
3) Living things grow and reproduce
4) Living things use energy and raw materials
Metabolism all chemical reactions that occur within the cells of living things
5) Living things respond to their environment
6) Living things maintain homeostasis
7) Populations of living things evolve and have adaptive traits
Levels of Organization of Life
1) Molecule
2) Cell
3) Tissue
4) Organ
5) Organ Systems
6) Individual
7) Population
8) Community
9) Ecosystem
10) Biosphere
Terms
Statistical Significance a measure of the probability that the results were due to chance
Theory a well-supported and wide-ranging explanation of some aspect of the physical universe
Placebo an innocuous nondrug substance made to look like the drug being tested
Informed Consent an informed consent document lists all the possible harmful effects of the drug or
treatment and must be signed before a person can take part in the study
Epidemiological Studies the science of the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and
disease conditions in defined populations
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Chapter 1D
12 Major Organ Systems of the Body
1) Integumentary System protects underlying tissues, provides skin sensation, helps regulate
body temperature, synthesizes vitamin D
2) Skeletal System attachment for muscles, protects organs, stores Ca and P, produces blood cells
3) Muscular System moves body and maintains posture, internal transport of fluids, generation
of heat
4) Endocrine System regulates and integrates body functions via hormones
5) Cardiovascular System transports nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and heat, transports
immune cells and antibodies, transports hormones, regulates pH
6) Lymphatic System returns tissue fluids to bloodstream, protects against infections/disease
7) Respiratory System exchanges respiratory gases with the environment
8) Digestive System physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorbs processes and stores food
9) Urinary System maintains constant internal environment through the excretion of nitrogenous
wastes
10) Nervous System regulates and integrates body functions via neurons
11) Reproductive System produces and secrets hormones, produces and releases egg and sperm
cells, houses embryo/fetus
Homeostatic Control of Blood Calcium
- an elevation in blood calcium level would be sensed by receptors
- in response the thyroid gland increases production of calcitonin (lowers blood calcium level)
- low blood calcium level results in parathyroid glands to increase production of parathyroid
hormone (PTH) which increases blood calcium levels
Homeostatic Control of Core Body Temperature
Temperature Rises
- blood vessels in skin widen
- sweat glands increase activity
Temperature Drops
- blood vessels in skin contract
- skeletal muscles cause shivering
Terms
Tissue a group of cells of similar type that work together to serve a common function
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Document Summary

Metabolism all chemical reactions that occur within the cells of living things: living things respond to their environment, living things maintain homeostasis, populations of living things evolve and have adaptive traits. Levels of organization of life: molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ systems, individual, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere. Statistical significance a measure of the probability that the results were due to chance. Theory a well-supported and wide-ranging explanation of some aspect of the physical universe. Placebo an innocuous nondrug substance made to look like the drug being tested. Informed consent an informed consent document lists all the possible harmful effects of the drug or treatment and must be signed before a person can take part in the study. Epidemiological studies the science of the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. An elevation in blood calcium level would be sensed by receptors.

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