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Exam Notes BIOL1080

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1080
Professor
Jim Kirkland
Semester
Winter

Description
Antagonistic:+the+effect+of+one+hormone+opposes+the+effect+of+another+(insulin+and+glucagon) + Synergistic:+the+combination+of+two+hormones+is+much+greater+than+its+individual+response+to+either + Permissive:+one+hormone+must+be+present+for+another+to+exert+ an+effect+ + Parathyroid+hormone:+increases+levels+of+calcium+in+the+blood+by+removing+it+from+the+bone+and+ allowing+the+kidneys+and+intestines+to+absorb+it + + Adrenal+glands:+located+in+the+kidneys + Adrenal+medulla+is+the+inner+part,+adrenal+cortex+is+the+oute r+part+(secretes+corticoids)+ Glucocorticoids+act+on+the+liver+to+promote+conversion+of+fat+and+protein+to+glucose+and+inhibit+ inflammatory+responses.+ + Fight+or+flight+response:+ C+arenal+medulla+secretes+norepinephrine+and+epinephrine + C+reaction+by+body's+sympathetic+nervous+system+to+emergencies + + Pancreas+is+located+in+the+abdomen+containing+exocrine+and+endocrine+cells + C+endocrine+cells+occur+in+small+clusters+called+pancreatic+islets + C+as+levels+of+blood+sugar+decline+pancreas+secretes+glucagon+(increases +blood+sugar)+ + C+stimulates+liver+to+form+glucose + + C+insulin+decreases+blood+sugar+ + Insulin+shock+ C+consequences+of+severe+depletion+of+blood+glucose + + Thymus+gland+ C+above+the+heart+ C+produces+thymopoietin+and+thymosin+promote+maturation+of+white+blood+cel ls+(lymphocytes)+to+form+T+ cells+ + Pineal+gland+ C+gland+at+the+center+of+the+brain + C+produces+melatonin++ C+melatonin+levels+greater+at+night+because+input+of+pineal+gland+receives+input+from+visual+pathways + + C+neurons+of+retina,+stimulated+by+light+send+impulses+to+hypothalamus+to+inhibit+melatonin + **+may+influence+daily+rhythms+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + 1.+Keep+foreign+organisms+or+molecules+out+of+the+body+in+the+first+place. + + C+chemical+and+physical+surface+barriers + + C+skin+flakes+off,+mucous+traps+microbes++(physical) + + C+sweat+and+oil,+lining+of+the+stomach+(chemical) + 2.+Attack+ANY+foreign+organism+or+molecule+or+cancer+cell+inside+the+body + + C+internal+cellular+and+chemical+defenses+ + C+defensive+cells+(phagocytes) ,+macophages+ + C+natural+killer+cells+(act+as+police)+which+attach+to+foreign+cells+and+cause+them+to+burst + + C+defensive+proteins+ + + C+interferons+:+slow+spread+of+viruses+in+body+ + + + C+attract+macrophages+and+NKC,+tell+other+cells+to+produce+proteins+to+protect+ + + + + from+virus+replicating+ + C+Complement+system:+ + + 1.+destruction+of+pathogen:+punch+holes+in+foreign+cells+(just+like+NKC) + + + 2.+enhancement+of+phagocytosis:+attract+macrophages+to+site+of+infection+to+remove+ + + + foreign+cells.+complement+cells+aid+in+this+process+by+binding+to+microbes. + + + 3.+stimulation+of+inflammation:+causes+blood+vessels+to+widen+and+become+permeable,+ + + + increasing+blood+flow+and+WBC+to+infected+areas + Inflammation* C+destroys+invaders+and+helps+repair+damaged+tissue + C+Redness:+blood+vessels+widen+by+histamine+(through+mast+cells),+increasing+blood+flow. + + C+delivers+phagocytes,+blood Cclotting+proteins,+defensive+proteins+(complment/antibodies) + C+Heat:+increases+metabolic+rate+of+the+body+cells+in+the+region,+speeding+heal ing+(increases+activity+of+ phagocytic+cells+and+defensive+cells) + C+Swelling:+histamine+makes+capillaries+more+permeable+allowing+blood Cclotting+factors+to+enter+the+ injured+area+and+protect+the+surrounding+area,+preventing+excessive+blood+loss.+Increases+o xygen+and+ nutrient+content.+ C+Pain:+excessive+fluid+presses+on+nerves+contributing+to+sensation+of+pain,+bacterial+toxins + + Fever* C+caused+by+PYROGENS:+chemicals+that+raise+thermostat+in+brain+(hypothalamus)+to+a+higher+set+point + C++fever+breaks+when+set+point+is+lowered+and+we+sweat+to+reduce+temperature+ + C+slows+growth+of+bacteria+by+liver+and+spleen+removing+iron+from+blood,+and+bacteria+needs+iron + C+increases+metabolic+rate+ + 3.+Destroy+a+SPECIFIC+type+of+foreign+organism+or+molecule+or+cancer+cell+inside +the+body.+ + C+immune+response:+allows+you+to+recover+from+illness+and+it+has+a+memory+of+previous+viruses + MHC+markers:+major+histocompatibility+complex,+labels+for+self+molecules + Antigen:+nonCself+substance+that+triggers+a+response,+usually+embedded+on+pro tein+coat+of+virus+ T+cells:+recognize+specific+MHC+markers+ and+not+respond+to+those+that+have+them + + C+they+travel+through+the+body+bumping+into+cells+and+checking+is+they+have+the+marker + Antigens+bind+to+receptors+on+T+cells,+which+divide+into+effector+cel ls+and+memory+cells.+ + C+effector+cells:+attack+the+enemy + + C+memory+cells:+long+lived+cells+that+remember+the+particular+invader + + + + + Secondary+Immune+Response + AntibodyCmediated+immune+response + C+defend+against+antigens+travelling+freely+in+intracellular+ fluid+(toxins,+bacteria,+viruses0+ C+effector+B+cells+use+antibodies,+which+neutralize+and+remove+potential+threats + + CellCmediated+immune+response + Cprotect+against+cellular+pathogens+or+abnormal+cells+through+T+cells + + Threat:+antigen+lacks+MHC+marker+and+ev ades+first+two+lines+of+defense + Detection:+Macrophages+engulf+foreign+material + Alert:+Presents+antigen+to+helper+T+cell+to+identify+invader+(must+show+it+to+a+specific+helper+T+cell)+to+ then+activate+it+ Alarm:+activated+helper+T+cell+begins+to+secrete+chem ical+messengers+(calls+in+B+and+T+cells0+ Building+Specific+Defenses:+B+and+T+cells+divide+repeatedly+ + Defense:+The*antibody4mediated*response + C+plasma+cells+secrete+antibodies+into+bloodstream+to+protect+against+antigens + C+antibodies+and+antigens+fit+toget her+like+a+lock+and+a+key + + Precipitation:+causes+antigens+to+clump+together+and+precipitate,+aiding+in+phagocytosis + + Lysis:+pokes+holes+through+membrane+of+target+cell+causing+it+to+bust + + Attraction+of+phagocytes:+phagocytes+engulf+and+destroy+the+foreign+ material+ + Neutralization:+antibodies+bind+to+toxins+preventing+them+from+causing+harm + Defense:+the+cellCmediated+response + C+effector+T+cells+destroy+antigen+bearing+cells + C+must+encounter+a+macrophage+then+a+helper+T+cell+must+release+a+chemical+to+activat e+T+cells+ C+perforins+cause+holes+to+form+in+target+membrane+so+that+it+disintegrates+ + Continued+Surveillance:+memory+cells+divides+and+produce+effector+cells+quicker+than+in+first+response + Withdrawal+of+forces:+suppressor+T+cells+releases+chemical+to+slow +down+activity+of+B+and+T+cells + + Active+Immunity:+actively+defends+itself+by+producing+memory+B+and+T+cells+following+antigen+exposure + Passive+Immunity:+protection+that+results+when+a+person+receives+antibodies+produced+by+another+ person+(mother+CC>+fetus,+breast+milk)+ + Autoimmunity+ C+when+the+immune+system+fails+to+distinguish+itself+from+foreign+matter+and+attacks+itself + C+systemic+lupus+erythematosis+ + C+antibodies+produced+by+B+cells+gone+astray + + C+connective+tissue+is+attacked + + + + + + + + + + + + Blood:+55%+plasma+(yellow),+45%+RBC,+WBC+and+platelets + RBC+made+from+Erythoblasts,+WBC+from+lymphocytes,+monocytes,+myeloblast+(neutrophil,+eosinophil,+ basophil),+platelets+from+megakaryocytes + + Blood+clotting+ C+platelets+cling+to+cables+of+collagen,+a+protein+fiber + C+fibrin+makes+a+web+that+traps+blood+cells+and+forms+a+clot,+preventing+additional+blood+loss + + Blood+vessels+and+blood+flow + C+interior+of+blood+vessel+=+lumen+=+inner+lining+that+comes+in+contact+with+blood + + C+lining+is+called+endothelium+provides+smooth+s urface+minimizing+friction + C+arteries:+muscular+tubes+transporting+blood+AWAY+from+heart+to+tissues + + Veins+ C+contain+valves+preventing+backflow+of+blood + C+contraction+of+skeletal+muscles+squeezes+veins + C+breathing+changes+pressure+moving+blood+towards+ heart+ + Heart+ C+myocardium:+wall+of+heart + C+endocardium:+thin+lining+ C+pericardium:+thick,+fibrous+sac+holds+the+heart+in+the+center+of+the+chest + C+AV+valves:+atrium+to+ventricle + C+Semi+lunar+valve:+ventricle+to+artery + + Pulmonary+circuit:+transports+blood+t o+and+from+the+lungs+(right+side) + Systemic+circuit:+transports+blood+to+rest+of+tissues+(left+side) + + Coronary+circulation:+extensive+network+of+capillaries+services+tissues+of+the+heart + Coronary+arteries:+Ensures+heart+receives+a+rich+supply+of+oxygen+and+ nutrients+ Cardiac+cycle:+flow+of+blood+through+the+heart+chambers+during+a+single+heartbeat + + C+systole:+contraction+ + C+diastole:+relaxation+ SA+node:+sinoatrial+node+ C+right+atrium+near+the+superior+vena+cava + Internal+conduction+system:+ ECG:+image+of+electrical+activities+of+the+heart+ Blood+pressure:+the+force+exerted+by+blood+against+the+walls+of+the+blood+vessels + Sphygmomanometer+measures+blood+pressure!! + + Lymphatic+System+ 1.+Return+excess+interstital+fluid+to+the+bloodstream + 2.+Transports+products+of+fat+ digestion+from+the+small+intestine+to+the+bloodstream + 3.+Help+defend+against+disease Ccausing+organisms+ C+they+are+designed+to+absorb+interstital+fluid+not+carried+away+by+capillaries + C+end+blindly,+unlike+blood+capillaries,+but+are+much+more+permeable + Lymph+nodes:+cleanse+the+lymph+as+it+slowly+filters+through + + C+contain+macrophages+and+lymphocytes + Thymus+gland:+located+in+the+chest,+Spleen:+clears+blood+of+old+and+damaged+RBC + GI+tract:+long,+hollow+tube + + Mucosa:+mucousClayer,+lubricates+lumen+ + Submucosa:+connective+tissue+containing+blood+vessels,+lymph+vessels+and+nerves + + Muscularis:+movement+of+materials+and+mixing+ingested+materials+with+digestive+secretions + + Serosa:+thin+layer+of+epithelial+tissue,+wraps+around+outside+of+GI+tract + + Hepatic+portal+vein+ C+blood+vessel+takes+blood+from+GI+tract+and+spleen+to+the+liver + + Salivary+glands+ C+sublingual,+parotid,+submandibular + + Stomach+ C+1.+storing+and+regulating+release+of+food + C+2.+liquefying+food+ C+3.+carrying+out+initial+chemical+digestion+of+proteins + C+contains+gastric+pits+in+the+gastric+glands,+produce+gastric+juice+(pepsin+and+hydrochloric+acid) + + Small+intestine+ C+chemical+digestion+and+absorption+(jejunum+and+ileum) + C+duodenum:+digestive+juices+enter+here+from+liver,+pancreas+and+stomach+ + + C+serves+as+a+waiting+line+ C+chemical+digestion+ + C+caused+by+pancreatic+enzymes+ + C+bile+plays+important+role+in+digestion+of+fats+(produced+in+liver,+stored+in+gallbladder) + + + C+spreads+out+fat+molecules+so+lipase+can+break+them+down+easier + C+large+surface+area+to+increase+absorption++due+to+villi + + C+microvilli+brush+away+debris + C+blood+capillaries+surround+a+lacteal,+which+is+a+lymphatic+vessel,+that+carries+away+fats + + Pancreas+ C+lies+behind+the+stomach+ C+pancreatic+juice+contains+enzymes,+water+an d+ions,+biocarbonate+ions+to+neutralize+acidity + C+break+down+nutrients++ + Liver+ C+blood+from+capillaries+through+hepatic+portal+veins+to+the+liver + C+control+glucose+level+in+blood + C+helps+transport+lipids+in+blood + C+removes+poisonous+substances+ C+hepatitis+=+inflammation+of+liver+ + Gallbladder+ C+squirts+bile+into+small+intestine + + + + + Large+intestine+ C+absorb+most+of+water+remaining+in+indigestible+food + C+store+feces+and+dispose+of+them + C+appendix+does+not+play+a+role+in+digestion+but+might+help+your+immune+sys tem+ C+cecum+is+the+start+of+the+large+intestine + C+colon:+absorbs+water+and+ions + + Nerves+and+Hormones+of+Digestion + C+nervous+system+controls+salivation + C+gastrin:+increases+production+of+gastric+juices + C+secretin:+stimulates+release+of+sodium+bicarbonate+to+neutralize+acidity+(pancreas+ CC>+small+intes.)+ + Vibrio+fischeri+ C+it+can+secrete+small+molecules+and+when+there+is+a+high+cell+density,+they+allow+bacteria+to+ communicate+to+each+other+(chemical+words+create+gr oup+behaviours)+ C+bacterial+quorum+sensing + + C+signal+producing+protein+makes+proteins+which+bind+to+their+signal+receptor+proteins + + C+group+behaviours+(they+make+a+vote,+then+everyone+responds+to+the+vote) + + C+bacteria+grow+and+then+they+communicate+when+to +launch+their+attack+to+overcome+the+host+ + molecule+(when+they+infect+you+ C+this+is+done+by+quorum+sensing)+ + C+secret+conversations+between+one+type+of+bacteria + + + C+however,+they+are+bilingual+species + + + + C+there+is+a+specific+enzyme+and+a+general+enzyme+fo r+communication+with++ + + + minorities/majorities + + Bacterial+biofilms+and+antibiotic+strategies + C+bacterial+growing+in+biofilms+are+resistant+to+antibiotics+and+immune+system + C+metabolically+unique+compared+to+bacteria+in+planktonic+state + C+future+treatment+=+focus+on+unique+metabolic+niches+and+enzymes+that+inhibit+biofilm+accumulation + + Energy+Distribution+System + C+ATP+powers+most+
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