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Biological Concepts of Health Final Exam Notes.pdf

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BIOL 1080
Jim Kirkland

Biological Conceptsof Health Final Exam Notes Blood and Blood Flow: Blood is 55% plasmawith 45% RBC's, WBC'sand platelets. • WBC's are the only blood components that can migrate in and out of tissues. • WBC's are madefrom lymphocytes,monocytes and myeloblasts • Plateletsare made from megakaryocytes • RBC's made from erythoblasts. • Plasma is the medium through which materialsare transported throughout the blood Blood clots when a fibrin network forms as collagen clingsto it, catching RBC's and platelets to block loss of blood flow. Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against vessels. Blood flows through the circulatory system from the pulmonary system to the systemic system and back again. • Beginsas deoxygenated blood in the right atrium where it pumps through to the right ventriclewhere the pulmonaryartery takes it the lungs. • It isreturned to the left atrium after being oxygenated and is pumped through to the left ventricleand out to the body through the aorta. • It returns to the heart through the inferior or superior vena cava. Arteries move blood AWAY from the heart while veins bring blood back INTO the heart. • Outer layerof arteriesare madeof flexiblefibres and collagenfor strength and anchoring Right atrium-->Tricuspid AV valve-->Rightventricle-->Pulmonary artery (Semilunar valve) Left atrium-->Mitral AV valve-->Leftventricle-->Aorta (Semilunar valve). The Heart and Heart Conditions SA node sets the tempo of the heartbeat and is known as the pacemakerof the heart. Systolic heartbeat is when the heart contracts. Intercalateddisks are where the cardiac muscle interweaves. Pericardium is the sac that holds the heart muscle in place. Myocardium isthe wall of the heart. Endocardiumis membranelining heart cavities Myocardial infarction occurs when part of the heart muscledies because of lack of blood flow/oxygen.Also known as a heart attack. During fibrillations, the heart muscle cells beginto pulse at different times as they depolarize independently. Coronarycirculatory system isthe system of blood vesselssolelyresponsiblefor deliveringnutrients and oxygen to the heart muscle. Coronaryartery disease occurs when the arteries that deliverblood to the heart are narrowed by fatty deposits. CoronaryHeart disease is caused by chronic or acute stress CoronaryHeart disease is caused by chronic or acute stress Atherosclerosis is the buildupof fatty deposits in blood vessels, narrowing them to cause inflammationor blood clots. Lymphatic System: The lymphaticsystem provides a way for fats to travel through the body to be absorbed into the blood as triglycerides. • Fats are too largeto be able to diffuseinto capillaries,so they must use this method of transport. The lymphaticsystem is propelled in the same way veinsare. • Valves prevent backflow and skeletal contractions/breathing move lymphthrough the system. The lymphaticsystem is NOT a loop and only flows one way, with lymphaticcapillariesending in a blunt, closed end (Calleddrainagetubes). Lymph nodes contain macrophages and lymphocytes and cleans lymph as it passes Immune Response Redness caused by histaminereleasedfrom mast cells, wideningblood vesselsto allowmore immunecells through. Swelling increases nutrient/oxygen flowto the area. It allowscapillariesto be more permeable,so blood clotting factors can makeit to the injured site faster to reduce blood loss. Inflammation helps in bodilydefences because blood vesselsare larger, meaning more immune system cellscan make it to the site of infection. Inflammationalso usuallycauses heat, meaning these reactions can occur faster at the site of inflammation. Autoimmunity occurs when a person's immunesystem (T cellsand B cells)recognize a part of the immunesystem as a pathogen and attack it. Passive immunity is the protection that occurs when a person receivesantibodies produced by another person. Active immunity is the production of memoryB and T cells that provide further protection against infection or virus. Plasmacells secrete antibodies to respond to detected antigens First step in the complement system is when perforins punch holes in the pathogen. Second stage in the complement system isan increase in phagocytes which can engulfclumped antigens Third stage in the complement system is inflammation Helper T cells are activated by hormone messengerscalled CYTOKINES. HelperT cellsactivate either T cellsor B cells, or both. Immune response ends when suppressor T cellsstop B and T cell responses Neutralization occurs when an antibody binds to toxins to prevent any more harm. An antigen is a protein embedded in the protein coat of a virus which triggersan immuneresponse. The cell-mediated immune response is taken care of by the T cells in response to abnormal cellsor pathogens. • T cells bump into cells throughout the body and senseif they have an MHC marker or not. If • T cells bump into cells throughout the body and senseif they have an MHC marker or not. If they do not have a recognizableMHC marker, they are identified as a foreign organism. The antibody-mediatedimmune response is taken care of by B cells. • Systemic lupus erythematosus is caused when B cellsgo astray and attack connective tissues. Autoimmunetheory says the immunesystem becomes less effective due to lifestyle,lack of sleep, bad diet Physiological Complexity, stressors and aging A stressor is any physical, psychological or social stress that requires the body and mind to respond or adapt. • Stress reduces variation in the biological clock • Chronic stress occurs when fatty acids get deposited in vesselsas cholesterol, causing buildup and narrowing of blood vessels. • Acute stress constricts blood vesselsresulting in hypertension and damagingartery walls. Allostatic/homeostaticload defined as the total activity of the CCN required to bring parameter within predictiverange. Physiologicalcomplexitycan be altered by the environment, genetics or lifestyle. • REASONABLY HIGH LEVEL OF DISORDER=MORE PHYSIOLOGICALLY COMPLEX=GOOD HEALTH • APOE gene associated with decreased physiological complexity (GENETIC) • Pollution and temperature associated with more CVD and worse nervous system function (ENVIRONMENT) • Social isolation decreases oxytocin (LIFESTYLE). As complexityINCREASES, pulses decrease in amplitude,but increase in frequency. ACTUALvariation patterns are chaotic and non-random. • Stroke volumeof heart gets lowerwith aging • Body regulation of temperature is worse Reactive range isthe range outside the normal zone that the body can recover from. Bodytemperature has circadian rhythms (over 24 hours where temp is usuallylower in the mornings), hourly rhythms and lifespantrajectory rhythms (body temperature tends to decrease with age). Genetic Mutation Theory says that as people age, the more mutations in their DNA replications occur. Cellular Theory of aging states that when cellsare no longer ableto divide, they all begin to dieand we deteriorate Chronic back pain lasts more then twelveWEEKS. Metabolic syndrome occurs when there isa largeamount of visceral fat which causes chronic inflammation,hormonal resistance and altered immunefunction. Gastric bypass surgery results in increased PYY levelsand decreased ghrelinwhich are both key appetite hormones Irritable Bowel Syndrome occurs when a person's large intestineis disordered resulting in chronic diarrhoea or constipation. Inflammatorybowel disease could be Crohn's diseaseor ulcerativecolitis (inflammationof the lower colon). lower colon). Lyme Disease iscaused by bacteria, ticks, insects and affects the immunesystem, causing fevers. GERD: Acid reflux in GI tract, damaging esophagus and stomach because of poor closing of lower esophageal sphincter Interleukin-6 is a pro-inflammatorycytokine which increases with age because of a polymorphism within a promoter region associated with longevity Resveratrol: Compound found in red winethat isknown to activate SirT1 gene which is associated with longevity Vitamin D: Increases bone strength, muscle strength and nerve function. . Metastasis occurs when a cancer becomes a
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