Biological Conceptsof Health Final Exam Notes
Blood and Blood Flow:
Blood is 55% plasmawith 45% RBC's, WBC'sand platelets.
• WBC's are the only blood components that can migrate in and out of tissues.
• WBC's are madefrom lymphocytes,monocytes and myeloblasts
• Plateletsare made from megakaryocytes
• RBC's made from erythoblasts.
• Plasma is the medium through which materialsare transported throughout the blood
Blood clots when a fibrin network forms as collagen clingsto it, catching RBC's and platelets to block
loss of blood flow.
Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against vessels.
Blood flows through the circulatory system from the pulmonary system to the systemic system and
• Beginsas deoxygenated blood in the right atrium where it pumps through to the right
ventriclewhere the pulmonaryartery takes it the lungs.
• It isreturned to the left atrium after being oxygenated and is pumped through to the left
ventricleand out to the body through the aorta.
• It returns to the heart through the inferior or superior vena cava.
Arteries move blood AWAY from the heart while veins bring blood back INTO the heart.
• Outer layerof arteriesare madeof flexiblefibres and collagenfor strength and anchoring
Right atrium-->Tricuspid AV valve-->Rightventricle-->Pulmonary artery (Semilunar valve)
Left atrium-->Mitral AV valve-->Leftventricle-->Aorta (Semilunar valve).
The Heart and Heart Conditions
SA node sets the tempo of the heartbeat and is known as the pacemakerof the heart.
Systolic heartbeat is when the heart contracts.
Intercalateddisks are where the cardiac muscle interweaves.
Pericardium is the sac that holds the heart muscle in place.
Myocardium isthe wall of the heart.
Endocardiumis membranelining heart cavities
Myocardial infarction occurs when part of the heart muscledies because of lack of blood
flow/oxygen.Also known as a heart attack.
During fibrillations, the heart muscle cells beginto pulse at different times as they depolarize
Coronarycirculatory system isthe system of blood vesselssolelyresponsiblefor deliveringnutrients
and oxygen to the heart muscle.
Coronaryartery disease occurs when the arteries that deliverblood to the heart are narrowed by
CoronaryHeart disease is caused by chronic or acute stress CoronaryHeart disease is caused by chronic or acute stress
Atherosclerosis is the buildupof fatty deposits in blood vessels, narrowing them to cause
inflammationor blood clots.
The lymphaticsystem provides a way for fats to travel through the body to be absorbed into the
blood as triglycerides.
• Fats are too largeto be able to diffuseinto capillaries,so they must use this method of
The lymphaticsystem is propelled in the same way veinsare.
• Valves prevent backflow and skeletal contractions/breathing move lymphthrough the system.
The lymphaticsystem is NOT a loop and only flows one way, with lymphaticcapillariesending in a
blunt, closed end (Calleddrainagetubes).
Lymph nodes contain macrophages and lymphocytes and cleans lymph as it passes
Redness caused by histaminereleasedfrom mast cells, wideningblood vesselsto allowmore
Swelling increases nutrient/oxygen flowto the area. It allowscapillariesto be more permeable,so
blood clotting factors can makeit to the injured site faster to reduce blood loss.
Inflammation helps in bodilydefences because blood vesselsare larger, meaning more immune
system cellscan make it to the site of infection. Inflammationalso usuallycauses heat, meaning
these reactions can occur faster at the site of inflammation.
Autoimmunity occurs when a person's immunesystem (T cellsand B cells)recognize a part of the
immunesystem as a pathogen and attack it.
Passive immunity is the protection that occurs when a person receivesantibodies produced by
Active immunity is the production of memoryB and T cells that provide further protection against
infection or virus.
Plasmacells secrete antibodies to respond to detected antigens
First step in the complement system is when perforins punch holes in the pathogen.
Second stage in the complement system isan increase in phagocytes which can engulfclumped
Third stage in the complement system is inflammation
Helper T cells are activated by hormone messengerscalled CYTOKINES. HelperT cellsactivate
either T cellsor B cells, or both.
Immune response ends when suppressor T cellsstop B and T cell responses
Neutralization occurs when an antibody binds to toxins to prevent any more harm.
An antigen is a protein embedded in the protein coat of a virus which triggersan immuneresponse.
The cell-mediated immune response is taken care of by the T cells in response to abnormal cellsor
• T cells bump into cells throughout the body and senseif they have an MHC marker or not. If • T cells bump into cells throughout the body and senseif they have an MHC marker or not. If
they do not have a recognizableMHC marker, they are identified as a foreign organism.
The antibody-mediatedimmune response is taken care of by B cells.
• Systemic lupus erythematosus is caused when B cellsgo astray and attack connective tissues.
Autoimmunetheory says the immunesystem becomes less effective due to lifestyle,lack of sleep,
Physiological Complexity, stressors and aging
A stressor is any physical, psychological or social stress that requires the body and mind to respond
• Stress reduces variation in the biological clock
• Chronic stress occurs when fatty acids get deposited in vesselsas cholesterol, causing buildup
and narrowing of blood vessels.
• Acute stress constricts blood vesselsresulting in hypertension and damagingartery walls.
Allostatic/homeostaticload defined as the total activity of the CCN required to bring parameter
Physiologicalcomplexitycan be altered by the environment, genetics or lifestyle.
• REASONABLY HIGH LEVEL OF DISORDER=MORE PHYSIOLOGICALLY COMPLEX=GOOD HEALTH
• APOE gene associated with decreased physiological complexity (GENETIC)
• Pollution and temperature associated with more CVD and worse nervous system function
• Social isolation decreases oxytocin (LIFESTYLE).
As complexityINCREASES, pulses decrease in amplitude,but increase in frequency. ACTUALvariation
patterns are chaotic and non-random.
• Stroke volumeof heart gets lowerwith aging
• Body regulation of temperature is worse
Reactive range isthe range outside the normal zone that the body can recover from.
Bodytemperature has circadian rhythms (over 24 hours where temp is usuallylower in the
mornings), hourly rhythms and lifespantrajectory rhythms (body temperature tends to decrease
Genetic Mutation Theory says that as people age, the more mutations in their DNA replications
Cellular Theory of aging states that when cellsare no longer ableto divide, they all begin to dieand
Chronic back pain lasts more then twelveWEEKS.
Metabolic syndrome occurs when there isa largeamount of visceral fat which causes chronic
inflammation,hormonal resistance and altered immunefunction.
Gastric bypass surgery results in increased PYY levelsand decreased ghrelinwhich are both key
Irritable Bowel Syndrome occurs when a person's large intestineis disordered resulting in chronic
diarrhoea or constipation.
Inflammatorybowel disease could be Crohn's diseaseor ulcerativecolitis (inflammationof the
lower colon). lower colon).
Lyme Disease iscaused by bacteria, ticks, insects and affects the immunesystem, causing fevers.
GERD: Acid reflux in GI tract, damaging esophagus and stomach because of poor closing of lower
Interleukin-6 is a pro-inflammatorycytokine which increases with age because of a polymorphism
within a promoter region associated with longevity
Resveratrol: Compound found in red winethat isknown to activate SirT1 gene which is associated
Vitamin D: Increases bone strength, muscle strength and nerve function.
Metastasis occurs when a cancer becomes a