Study Guides (238,471)
Canada (115,151)
Biology (563)
BIOL 1080 (108)

Exam notes.docx

12 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
BIOL 1080
Brian Mc Dougall

Antagonistic the effect of one hormone opposes the effect of another insulin and glucagonSynergistic the combination of two hormones is much greater than its individual response to eitherPermissive one hormone must be present for another to exert an effectParathyroid hormone increases levels of calcium in the blood by removing it from the bone and allowing the kidneys and intestines to absorb itAdrenal glands located in the kidneysAdrenal medulla is the inner part adrenal cortex is the outer part secretes corticoidsGlucocorticoids act on the liver to promote conversion of fat and protein to glucose and inhibit inflammatory responsesFight or flight response arenal medulla secretes norepinephrine and epinephrine reaction by bodys sympathetic nervous system to emergenciesPancreas is located in the abdomen containing exocrine and endocrine cells endocrine cells occur in small clusters called pancreatic islets as levels of blood sugar decline pancreas secretes glucagon increases blood sugar stimulates liver to form glucose insulin decreases blood sugarInsulin shock consequences of severe depletion of blood glucoseThymus gland above the heart produces thymopoietin and thymosin promote maturation of white blood cells lymphocytes to form T cellsPineal gland gland at the center of the brain produces melatoninmelatonin levels greater at night because input of pineal gland receives input from visual pathways neurons of retina stimulated by light send impulses to hypothalamus to inhibit melatonin may influence daily rhythms 1 Keep foreign organisms or molecules out of the body in the first place chemical and physical surface barriers skin flakes off mucous traps microbesphysical sweat and oil lining of the stomach chemical2 Attack ANY foreign organism or molecule or cancer cell inside the body internal cellular and chemical defenses defensive cells phagocytes macophages natural killer cells act as police which attach to foreign cells and cause them to burst defensive proteins interferonsslow spread of viruses in body attract macrophages and NKC tell other cells to produce proteins to protect from virus replicating Complement system1 destruction of pathogen punch holes in foreign cells just like NKC2 enhancement of phagocytosis attract macrophages to site of infection to remove foreign cells complement cells aid in this process by binding to microbes3 stimulation of inflammation causes blood vessels to widen and become permeable increasing blood flow and WBC to infected areasInflammation destroys invaders and helps repair damaged tissue Redness blood vessels widen by histamine through mast cells increasing blood flow delivers phagocytes bloodclotting proteins defensive proteins complmentantibodies Heat increases metabolic rate of the body cells in the region speeding healing increases activity of phagocytic cells and defensive cells Swelling histamine makes capillaries more permeable allowing bloodclotting factors to enter the injured area and protect the surrounding area preventing excessive blood loss Increases oxygen and nutrient content Pain excessive fluid presses on nerves contributing to sensation of pain bacterial toxinsFever caused by PYROGENS chemicals that raise thermostat in brain hypothalamus to a higher set pointfever breaks when set point is lowered and we sweat to reduce temperatureslows growth of bacteria by liver and spleen removing iron from blood and bacteria needs iron increases metabolic rate3 Destroy a SPECIFIC type of foreign organism or molecule or cancer cell inside the body immune response allows you to recover from illness and it has a memory of previous virusesMHC markers major histocompatibility complex labels for self moleculesAntigen nonself substance that triggers a response usually embedded on protein coat of virusT cells recognize specific MHC markers and not respond to those that have them they travel through the body bumping into cells and checking is they have the markerAntigens bind to receptors on T cells which divide into effector cells and memory cells effector cells attack the enemy memory cells long lived cells that remember the particular invader
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 1080

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.