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Biol 1080 Exam review 2012.docx

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1080
Jim Kirkland

Biol 1080 Exam review 2012 Hormones growth spurt hormone driven modulate growth and development homeostasis reproduction and many other things in physiome including aspects of CCN neurodevelopment and immunity come from other organs with a secondary secretion function kidney Hypothalamus nervous signal GHRH neurohormone anterior pituitary gland GH bone liver releases IGF1 to bones and muscle muscle Reproduction oxytocin hypothalamus nerve stimulation OT release posterior pituitary gland OT many other effects breast Sucking of infant stimulates nerve receptors in nipple resulting impulses travel along nerves to hypothalamus hypothalamus signals posterior pituitary release OT OT travels via blood stream to mammary glands milk ejected from mammary glands Homeostasis blood calcium and blood glucose insulin decrease blood glucose glucagon causes increase blood glucose Nervous system and endocrine system to form foundation of CCN some nerves release hormones directly into bloodstream neurohormones all primary endocrine glands and secondary endocrine tissue are innervated by neurons of autonomic nervous system nerve signals via local neurotransmitter release can modulate hormone secretion neurons in CNS and PNS along with astrocytes in CNS and astrocytelike cells in PNS have receptors for many hormones insulin estrogen Hormones of pituitary gland neurohormone oxytocin Multi organ hormone axis Hormones of the pancreas has exocrine and endocrine functions diseases pancreatitis cancer Single organ hormone axisProhibited drugs anabolic androgenic steroids peptide hormones growth factors and related substances beta2 agonists hormone antagonists and modulators stimulants narcotics cannabinoids glucocorticosteroids Anabolic steroids hormones released naturally at low levels in complex ultradian circadian rhythms anabolic steroids not timed to mimic natural hormone production Defense system first line nonspecific physical and chemical surface barriers aka innate rdimmune system second line nonspecific internal cellular and chemical defense 3 line immune response aka adaptive immune system Skin acidic pH discourages growth of organisms sweat and oil can kill bacteria Large intestine normal bacterial inhabitants keep invaders in check Epithelial barrierswashing away of pathogens leaving human microbiomeSecond line of defenseProteinbased defense lysis by complement system CS 50 proteins made by liver CS present all the time does more than lysis
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