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Bio 1080 Ch.doc

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1080
Jim Kirkland

Bio 1080 midterm notesTheory a general belief or beliefs about some aspect of the world we live in or those in it which may or not be supported by evidence ie Woman are worse drivers than menCh 1dThe 12 major organ systemsIntegumentary protects underlying tissues provides the skin sensation helps regulatebody tempsynthesizes vitamin DSkeletal attachment for muscles protects organs stores calciumphosphorus produces blood cells Muscular moves bodymaintains posture internal transport of fluids and generation of heatNervous Regulatesintegrates body functions via NEURONSEndocrine Regulatesintegrates body functions via HORMONES Cardiovascular Transports nutrients respiratory gases wastes and heat Transports immune cells antibodies and hormones Regulates pH Lymphatic returns tissues fluids to blood streamprotects against infectiondisease Respiratory Exchanges respiratory gases with the environment Digestive Physicalchemical breakdown of food Absorbs processesstores foodUrinary Maintains constant internal environment through the excretion of nitrogenous waste ReproductiveProducessecretes hormones Producesreleases egg and sperm cellsHouses embryofetus females HOMEOSTASIS maintained primarily by negativefeedback mechanisms corrective measures that slow or reverse a variation from the normal value of a factor and return the factor to its normal value Receptor detects change in the internal or external environment In context a sensor that monitors the environment When it detects a change in some factor it sends that info to the Control Center Control Center determines the factors set point the level or range that is normal for that factor It integrates info coming from all pertinent receptorsselects the appropriate response In most of the bodys homeostatic systems it is located in the brain Effector often a muscle or gland carries out the selected response Example Homeostatic control of Blood Calcium fig1d13An elevation in blood calcium level would be sensed by receptor In response a control center in the brain would stimulate the thyroid gland to increase production of calcitonin which lowers blood calcium level If the calcium level dropped too low receptors would signal the control center in the brain In response the CC would stimulate the parthyroid glands to inc production of parathyroid hormone which would raise blood calcium levels Homeostatic control of Core Body temperature Negative Feedback system in this homeostatic control system thermoreceptors are the sensors the hypothalamus is the CCsweat glands blood vessels in the skinthe skeletal muscles are the effectorsTemp below normalSHIVERING blood vessels in skin contractTemp above normal SWEATIN blood vessels in skin widen Tissue is a group of cells of similar type that work together to serve a common function Human tissues have 4 common types Epithelial tissues cover bodies surfaces lines body cavities and organsforms glands Connective tissue serves as a storage site for fat plays an important role in immunityprovides the bodyits organs with protection and support Muscle tissue is responsible for body movement and for movementm of substances through the bodyNervous tissue conducts nerve impulses from one part of the body to anothermore in detail of each tissue pg 5660OrgansOrgan Systems Organ is a structure composed of 2 or more different tissues that work together to perform a specific functionOrgans themselves do not usually function asindependent units but instead from part of an organ system Organ System a group of organs with a common functionChapter 2aBiomedical Model of Illness In this model a symptom of illness is considered to have an underlying pathology that will hopefully but not inevitably be cured through medical intervention The assumption is that removal of the pathology will lead to restored health ie Illness results from disease It has been described as reductionist ie the basic idea that mind matter body and human behaviour can all be reduced to and explained at the level of cells neural activity or biochemical activity Reductionism tends to ignore evidence that different people respond in different ways to the same underlying disease because of differences cognition social support resources or cultural beliefs Biopsychosocial Model of Illness Dualaspect monists getting closer to the truthsthose with this viewpoint would agree that there is some type of stuffmonist but would suggest that it can be perceived in 2 different ways Objectivelysubjectively Subjective Response many illnesses have organic underlying causes but they also elicit uniquely individual responses due to action of the mind We would propose that the role of the mind I the manifestation ofresponse to illnessis crucial to the advancement of our understanding of the complex nature of health illness Subjectivity in terms of beliefs expectations and emotions interact with bodily reactions to play an important role in the illness experiences Biopsychosocial model illustrates that psychological and social factors can add to biological or biomedical explanationsunderstanding of health and illness experiences Dualism the idea that the mind and body are separate entities The mind is considered to be nonmaterial ie Not objective or visible such as thoughtsfeelings and the body is materialie made up of real stuff physical matter such as our brain heart and cells The root word of health isWHOLENESS and indeed holy and healthy share the same root word in AngloSaxon which is perhaps why so many cultures associate one with the other eg Medicine men have both roles having its roots in wholeness also suggests the early existence of a broad view of health that included mental and physical aspects
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