Bio 1080 midterm notes!
Theory: a general belief or beliefs about some aspect of the world we live in or those in it,
which may or not be supported by evidence (ie. Woman are worse drivers than men.)
The 12 major organ systems:
Integumentary: protects underlying tissues, provides the skin sensation, helps regulate
body temp. , synthesizes vitamin D.
Skeletal: attachment for muscles, protects organs, stores calcium & phosphorus, produces
Muscular: moves body & maintains posture, internal transport of fluids, and generation of
Nervous: Regulates & integrates body functions via NEURONS.
Endocrine: Regulates & integrates body functions via HORMONES.
Cardiovascular: Transports nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes and heat. Transports
immune cells, antibodies and hormones, Regulates pH.
Lymphatic: returns tissues fluids to blood stream & protects against infection & disease.
Respiratory: Exchanges respiratory gases with the environment.
Digestive: Physical & chemical breakdown of food. Absorbs, processes & stores food.
Urinary: Maintains constant internal environment through the excretion of nitrogenous
Reproductive: Produces & secretes hormones. Produces & releases egg and sperm cells.
Houses embryo/fetus (females).
-maintained primarily by negative-feedback mechanisms: corrective measures that slow or
reverse a variation from the normal value of a factor and return the factor to its normal
•Receptor: detects change in the internal or external environment. In context a
sensor that monitors the environment. When it detects a change in some factor it
sends that info to the Control Center.
•Control Center: determines the factor’s set point, the level or range that is normal
for that factor. It integrates info coming from all pertinent receptors & selects the
appropriate response. In most of the body’s homeostatic systems, it is located in the
•Effector: often a muscle or gland carries out the selected response.
Example: Homeostatic control of Blood Calcium (fig.1d.13)
An elevation in blood calcium level would be sensed by receptor. In response, a control
center in the brain would stimulate the thyroid gland to increase production of calcitonin,
which lowers blood calcium level. If the calcium level dropped too low, receptors would
signal the control center in the brain. In response, the CC would stimulate the parthyroid
glands to inc. production of parathyroid hormone, which would raise blood calcium levels.
Homeostatic control of Core Body temperature:
-Negative Feedback system, in this homeostatic control system, thermoreceptors are the
sensors, the hypothalamus is the CC, & sweat glands, blood vessels in the skin & the
skeletal muscles are the effectors.
-Temp below normal = SHIVERING, blood vessels in skin contract.
-Temp above normal= SWEATIN, blood vessels in skin widen.
Tissue: is a group of cells of similar type that work together to serve a common function.
Human tissues have 4 common types:
-Epithelial tissues: cover bodies surfaces, lines body cavities and organs, & forms glands.
-Connective tissue: serves as a storage site for fat, plays an important role in immunity, &
provides the body & its organs with protection and support.
-Muscle tissue: is responsible for body movement and for movementm of substances
through the body.
- Nervous tissue: conducts nerve impulses from one part of the body to another.
(more in detail of each tissue pg. 56-60)
Organs & Organ Systems:
Organ: is a structure composed of 2 or more different tissues that work together to perform
a specific function. Organs themselves do not usually function as independent units but
instead from part of an organ system.
Organ System: a group of organs with a common function. .
Biomedical Model of Illness: In this model, a symptom of illness is considered to have an
underlying pathology that will hopefully, but not inevitably, be cured through medical
intervention. The assumption is that removal of the pathology will lead to restored health
(ie. Illness results from disease.) It has been described as reductionist (ie the basic idea
that mind, matter (body) and human behaviour can all be reduced to, and explained at, the
level of cells, neural activity or biochemical activity. Reductionism tends to ignore
evidence that different people respond in different ways to the same underlying disease
because of differences, cognition, social support resources or cultural beliefs.
Biopsychosocial Model of Illness: Dual-aspect monists- getting closer to the “truths” ,
those with this viewpoint would agree that there is some type of “stuff”(monist) but would
suggest that it can be perceived in 2 different ways: Objectively & subjectively.
Subjective Response: many illnesses have organic underlying causes, but they also elicit
uniquely individual responses due to action of the mind.
-We would propose that the role of the ‘mind’ I the manifestation of, & response to, illness
is crucial to the advancement of our understanding of the complex nature of health &
Subjectivity: in terms of beliefs, expectations and emotions interact with bodily reactions
to play an important role in the illness experiences.
Biopsychosocial model: illustrates that psychological and social factors can add to
biological or biomedical explanations & understanding of health and illness experiences.
Dualism: the idea that the mind and body are separate entities. The mind is considered to
be ‘non-material’ (ie. Not objective or visible, such as thoughts & feelings) and the body is
‘material’(ie. made up of real ‘stuff’, physical matter such as our brain, heart and cells.)
•The root word of health is “ WHOLENESS”, and indeed ‘holy’ and ‘healthy’ share
the same root word in Anglo-Saxon, which is perhaps why so many cultures
associate one with the other. (eg. Medicine men have both roles.) having its roots in
‘wholeness’ also suggests the early existence of a broad view of health that
included mental and physical aspects.