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BIOL 1090 Final: BIOL 1090 Compiled Notes - Exam Review

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1090
Van Raayand Maathurs

BIOL*1090 NOTES LECTURE 3 (MARCH 03, 2016) o **3 Classes of Membrane Proteins o Vesicle: (compare to a balloon) may or may not have may contents o *revise: transition temperature – membrane fluidity o High amount of unsaturated or desaturated lipids which means more double bonds = lower transition temperatures Liposomes fusing  This process is always occurring in our bodies  One present use for liposomes fusing are skin creams Lipid Rafts  Some lipids can come together and create an island  This hypothesis is very hard to observe  They’re able to attract certain proteins **4 Basic Mechanisms for moving across membrane  *need to know diagrams (how to label and understand flow of molecules)  Passive: no involvement of energy (ATP) from high conc. to low conc.  Active: Requires energy (ATP) because it is moving against the gradient from low conc. to high conc. o *Revise concepts: osmosis, hyper osmotic, hypo osmotic, isosmotic, plasmolysis Gated Channels  Don’t need to concern about the specific protein, but that K, Na ions can pass through the membrane through this channel o If 2 things get pushed together in the same direction – co transporter o *Cotransporter, symporter, antiparallel LECTURE 4: ENDOMEMBRANE (MARCH 08, 2017) 1. How did the cell become optimized? Overview of endo-membrane system  System of membranes arranged in sheet-like structure or tube form which means it is possible to connect these different forms  Organelles = endomembrane, surrounding the organelles= plasma membrane  All membranes are connected to one and another Endo-membrane system  Unique set of proteins for a certain compartment Cells utilize several membrane trafficking pathways  Exocytosis vs. endocytosis  Constitutive vs. regulated o Use of florescent proteins (read textbook for more information) Isolation & biochemical analysis of organelles  Mutant analysis: naturally created, toxic chemically created Endoplasmic reticulum  Net-like structure  Between membranes = tiny spaces known as lumen  ER polygons constantly being formed and destroyed  Rough ER – ER membranes with ribosomes stuck to it  Smooth ER – ER membranes with no ribosomes on it  Per-nuclear ER – ER that surrounds the nucleus Transportation out of nucleus  mRNA -> Polypeptide -> protein *Protein synthesis  30S, 50S – s stands for  Translation figure used to reinforce ribosome functions o **Co-translation vs. post-translation LECTURE 5 – ER CO-TRANSLATION (MARCH 13, 2017) 2. How the protein contents are formed? o *Should know how to label diagram of DNA being transcribed into pre-mRNAs and mRNAs being translated in polypeptides o Some ribosomes that aren’t attached to the ER will produce proteins which will go right into the ER Q: How is the site of translation determined?  *understand: signal hypothesis  Protein being synthesized  Protein being imported into the ER (lumen) Q: How does a protein reach the ER lumen?  Nascent protein moves through a channel into the ER (similar to a thread going through a needle) Co-translation protein import  Binding of GTP can influence the behaviour of protein  *Co-translation import (translation is the most important aspect) Co translation import of integral membrane proteins  Q: How is the protein maintained in the ER lumen?  Protein must release signal before leaving the lumen  Tail side of protein which now holds onto the ER – 4 amino acids make the protein stay inside the ER  ER retrievers – the 4 amino acids  Added a signal sequence to C terminus  Transport vesicles fuse and form vesicular tubular clusters (VTCs)  Which forms the cyst golgi network  Cyst golgi network – something that’s near the ER will become the cyst golgi network where trans will be something that’s farther away LECTURE 7 – VESICLES, LYSOSOMES, VACUOLES, PEROXISOMES (MARCH 20, 2017) o Presence of certain amino acids that make it possible for certain proteins to remain in or out of the ER Vesicle Transport  Trafficking vesicles to a particular compartment Clathrin protein  Gives more insight on how proteins are formed and packaged  3 hooks formed, can hook onto each other and another surface  CCVs are spread in diff places – read txbk to find out more and understand notes  Plasma membrane from interior: proteins hanging onto  2 spaces to find CCV: transporting network (TGN), underneath plasma membrane (outer side) – hanging on and hanging in plasma membrane Hoberman sphere  As protein content inside it grows, it also expands  Example of how to picture clathrin proteins Clathrin micrographs  Proteins starts connecting with each other and basket formed  Clathrin compressing and vesicle forming and detaching Dynamin  Allows for vesicles to break off GFP  Compare paintballs to vesicles – until exocytosis occurs, vesicles are held inside of membranes, but exocytosis is when they are splat outside  GFP: Green florescent protein – can track where the protein is located  Tells us how protein was orientated  GFP on exterior: inner was maintained but not outer – exocytosis, what was inside vesicle gets exposed to the outside (contents of vesicles thrown outside) Lysosomes  pH much more acidic than outside  tiny pumps to push H+ ions in to membranes  Results in hydrolysis  Why doesn’t lysosome digest itself? It is lined by another set of proteins which protect it from the very acidic environment – alike stomach Lysosome Functions  Creates autophagy (auto = self, phagy = eating, self-eating)  Cell doesn’t destroy - likes to recycle so autophagy = one way cells are broken apart and used again  Degradation of internalized material Plant Vacuoles  Like lysosomes in having acidic pH – main function to break down, absorb things  Plant which appears half dead – vacuole has lost water retention and just needs to be replenished Autophagosomes  Double membrane structure has been formed - sets of bilipid membrane has come together  Outer leaflet -> inner leaflet -> lumen x2  Ex: Mitochondria  If lysosome fuses with autophageosomes  Older cells might have more pigment granule Exocytosis & Endocytosis  Exo – creating things inside cells and throwing outside in terms of secretion  Endo – when things flow into the cell = endocytosis and certain things are formed Endomembrane  Vesicles were being made from protein  Could many vesicles fuse to give rise to an organelle? Yes, we could call a very large vesicle with specific characteristic content and function an organelle Peroxides  Creates holes in membrane  Microbodies  Major role hydrogen peroxide based reactions  Presences of PTS for signal  By manipulating proteins can make them target specific organelles, structures **The Endo-membrane  Fill-in with terms and important structures and print LECTURE 8 – CHLOROPLASTS (MARCH 22, 2017) Harvesting light  Group of molecules of chlorophyll harvest the light and all the wavelengths are being picked up Photosynthesis  Dark reactions – do not require absorpti
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